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What is human development? Discuss the roles of maturation and learning in human development.

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Introduction

Question: What is human development? Discuss the roles of maturation and learning in human development. Introduction Since human beings appear in the world, the evolution of them is developed continuously. We can't use any kinds of methods to explain and research this deepen evolution. However, we can use the certain theories to analyze it in logical concept. There is psychology. Human development can be divided to five theoretical perspectives in psychology. There are cognitive, biological, behavioral, psychoanalytic and humanistic. We will discuss the cognitive, behavioral and biological. They have many aspects and examples of their theories, so we can understand what is the human development of their researches easily. Subsequently, we also can know the role of learning and maturation. They are closely relationship. We will use some examples to find out the relationship of them. What is the human development Human beings are the scientific study of how people change and how they stay the same over time. The change is most obvious in childhood but occurs throughout life span. It takes two forms. There are quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative change is a change in the number or amount of something. It can measure by unit, such as height and weight. The qualitative change is a change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the nature of a person's intelligence, the ways the mind works. ...read more.

Middle

Then the learning can be divided into some parts. There are assimilation, accommodation and adaptation. The assimilation and accommodation are contained of the schema. The schema refers a conclusion of special concept of knowledge. It is an organized pattern of mental functioning. The assimilation is that the incorporation new object and experiences into a structure or schema in the mind to be used latter in problem-solving situations, e.g. the baby uses the nursing bottle to suck the milk because it uses the knowledge which had been learned before. The accommodation is the tendency to change one's schema or operations or to make new once to include new objects or experiences enabling a higher level of thinking, e.g. the mother gives a cup of milk to the baby, but it is no nipple. The baby must need to learn the sucking if it wants to drink the milk. The adaptation is produced by the above condition. It is a key principle in ethological theories referring to the way that behavior changes or develops to meet environmental demands and to ensure survival and reproduction5. So that, the equilibration will be broken down if the child faces to a new of event and view. Whereas that, the child can develop the cognitive. ...read more.

Conclusion

They will know the new things and knowledge from their experience. It can rely the learning as above. In addition, the people need to develop certain ability for learning. Hence, the relationship between learning and maturation are inseparable. Reference: 1. Oats, J. (ED.), The foundations of child development. UK: The Open University, & Black well Publishers Ltd. Chapter 1. p.22 2. Papalia, D. E. & Old, S. W. (1992), Human Development, 5th ed.: McGraw-Hill, Inc. p.9 3. Cain, W. (1994). Gesell's principles of development. In J. Oats (ED.), The foundations of child development. UK: The Open University, & Black well Publishers Ltd. p.258 4. Papalia, D. E. & Old, S. W. (1992), Human Development, 5th ed.: McGraw-Hill, Inc. p.500 5. Kalugar, G. (1986), Human Development: The Span of Life, New York, Macmillan. 6. Swales, C. (1998), Social Sciences, A Foundation Course, Psychology 1, Unit 15 and 16: The Open University of Hong Kong, p.20 7. Roth, I. (1990). Introduction to Psychology, volume 1: The Open University of Hong Kong, p. 262 8. Swales, C. (1998), Social Sciences, A Foundation Course, Psychology 1, Unit 15 and 16: The Open University of Hong Kong, p.31 9. Shaffer, D. (1999). Developmental psychology. 5th Edition : Brooks/Cole publishing company. Chapter 1. p. 4 10. Papalia, D. E. & Old, S. W. (1992), Human Development, 5th ed.: McGraw-Hill, Inc. p.175 ...read more.

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