• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What is the role of make-believe play in children's cognitive and socioemotional development? Analyse the positions of Piaget and Vygotsky, giving particular attention to Vygotskian concepts of the ZPD and internalisation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Question 1: What is the role of make-believe play in children's cognitive and socioemotional development? Analyse the positions of Piaget and Vygotsky, giving particular attention to Vygotskian concepts of the ZPD and internalisation. Play can be defined as the combination of sensory exploration and motor skills (gross and fine), which inevitably lead to the cultivation of intellectual and socio-emotional abilities. Make-believe play fosters this cultivation in an imaginary environment, making use of pre-determined roles and rules and utilizes objects symbolically. Play through pretence is an important aspect in children's cognitive and socioemotional development. It allows children to create safe paradigms in which they have the control and ultimately determine the outcome. This is an important component of self-esteem, self-concept and self-regulation. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky hold opposing theories in relation to the role of make-believe play in children's development. Piaget believed play parallels development, while Vygotsky theorized play promotes development. While there are facets of both Piaget and Vygotsky's work that complement the ideology surrounding make-believe play, it is Vygotsky's work that has greatly contributed to the advancement in understanding of the framework within this most important time of a child's development. According to Vygotsky, constructive play encourages cognitive and socioemotional development. (Bodrova et al, 1996) Vygotsky argued play promotes development in three distinctive characteristics. Firstly, play creates a ZPD and promotes internalisation. ...read more.

Middle

Piaget theorized that developmental milestones are a direct result of children's actions on their physical world. This involved the identification of challenging situations and the development of problem solving skills, so that they eventually meld with their external reality. Piaget's theory, works through a series of direct interactions between the child and its environment. This evolutionary process involves adaptation, assimilation and accommodation. Piaget notes that organization is the final stage in this developmental process. Piaget perceived play as a method which children use to develop their cognitive abilities and to practice their emergently cultivated capabilities. Piaget also perceived play as a child's adaptation to the world around them (their paradigm) through application of assimilation. Fitting in new ideas, objects and situations into their existing thought patterns or schema. Piaget asserted "...in play, assimilation predominates over accommodation and therefore, play does not significantly promote the child's cognitive development." (Vialle, Lysaght, & Verenikina, 2002, p.41) Piaget's theory includes the concept of compensation or child coping mechanisms through play, which Piaget did not acknowledge to be part of substantial development. In this regard children are simply redefining an unpleasant situation. Piaget claimed that there are three stages in the development of play; imitative or purposeful play, imaginary play, and play with rules. Each stage linking with a stage in Piaget's theory of child development, practice play connecting with the sensorimotor phase, symbolic play relating to the preoperational phase, and conventional play linking to the concrete operational phase. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, as the development increases the child's self view in the fantasy alters. It no longer needs to be egocentric, but now the child can view themselves as both recipient and agent. (Berk, 2000) According to Leong and Bodrova (2001), providing children with the opportunity of fantasy play and multi-purpose props can further develop children's imagination and creativity. Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky's ZPD is bi-directional which allows for internal reflection or metacognition. This view allows children to learn through self-correction. Self-correction may be without adult guidance. This is in direct opposition to Piaget whose theory of assimilation, which revolves around trying to make new situations fit pre-existing ideas, in make-believe play. While there is natural symbiosis between Piaget and Vygotsky's ideas, it is Vygotsky who offers a more flexible theory of make-believe play in children's cognitive and socio-emotional development. Vygotsky formulated and hypothesized that children are able to work beyond their individual level of development with scaffolding and adult or peer guidance. Both Vygotsky and Piaget believed through play children can discover the world, formulate opinions and impart some meaning to their ever-changing view of the world. Although Piaget' ideas regarding child development were revolutionary, it is Vygotsky who is more important in the field of child psychology. Vygotsky's creations of the ZPD and concept of internalisation have transformed modern ways of thinking. Rosemarie Pollum EDUF111 Essay 2 2003 Student no. 2607360 Tutorial time Tuesday 9.30am to 10.30am Pauline Lysaght ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Psychosynthesis- a comparative essay

    intent only on creating the kind of relationship in which this expertise can be expressed." (Merry, 1999,pp90-d). The client chooses their own path, and the counsellor does not control the process. In contrast, psychosynthesis, seems quite directive to me, although it does claim that the client has control of their

  2. Parallel Language Development in Deaf and Hearing Children

    Although morphological errors and overgeneralizations were also made, most of the children had not yet reached the level of signing where those errors would have occurred. Crowson (1994) concluded that errors made by deaf children were parallel to errors made by hearing children at similar stages of language acquisition.

  1. Using a range of examples, describe the purpose and role of play in the ...

    This can be with either adults or other children, through play children can develop social skills, such as sharing with others and waiting for their turn to do something. Again, there are many activities that children can take part in to aid their social development..

  2. Discuss, Compare and Contrast Piaget and Vygotsky’s Learning Theories.

    Concrete Operational children are limited in one very important respect, however: They can apply their logical operations only to concrete, observable objects and events. They have difficulty dealing with abstract information and with hypothetical ideas contrary to their own reality.

  1. Psychological and Sociological Perspectives On Human Development and Behaviour.

    Human beings, unlike animals, learn most of their behaviour. "They do not just behave instinctively but use their intelligence and learning. They learn how to behave and share much of this behaviour with other members of the society to which they belong. This learned, shared behaviour is known as culture. Culture is the way of life of society's members.

  2. To what extent can cognitive development be understood in terms of the specialisation of ...

    The first involves the development of pidgins into creoles. He elicited work from linguist Derek Bickerton who studied migrant workers to the USA. The workers developed a pidgin. This is a non-grammatical form of communication between non-native speakers to converse with each other.

  1. Investigating the nature of children's scientific reasoning: cognitive structures, conflict and scaffolding.

    Part B assess the participantâs initial understanding with light objects that sink and heavy objects that float. In both parts, the experimenter presented the children with a set of objects and asked them whether they thought the object would sink or float and why.

  2. To what extent do the grand theories take account of the role of social ...

    The âBobo Dollâ experiment conducted by Bandura (1965) demonstrates this where children imitated an adultâs actions by assuming the role of the observed adult through perceived reinforcement. However, the experiments methods have drawn attention to the powerful influence television violence has on children (Liebert et al, 1977).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work