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University Degree: Zoology
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9. Elephants are classified as mammals and herbivores. 10.Even though elephants have enoroumous ears, there hearing is very poor. Asian Elephant Diet The elephant's diet is very large. It is known that they can eat up to 3OO pounds of food. Elephants are herbivores and eat all types of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fruits, and bark. Their diet varies from types of trees to wild mangos. Life Cycle Female Asian elephants are capable of giving birth approximately every 4-6 years, about 7 calves in a lifetime. Babies are carried inside elephant mothers for 19-22 months, so almost 2 years.
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that, human studies take a long time to determine the effects of chemicals which may take ten to twenty years to cause problems . At the same time, animal research industry is necessary in cosmetic testing, because that would protect humans from any type of side effects of the pharmaceutical companies products such as; Shampoo, Make up, Hair dye ....etc.
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It is therefore controversial to say that animals have no rights; few, if any religions, would condone cruelty. In wider society, many people around the world, irrespective of religion would have sympathy with the view of the 19th century philosopher, Jeremy Bentham who asked "...The question is not, Can they reason? nor Can they talk? But, Can they suffer?" Christianity says that animals were made for humans and people are dominant. This is said explicitly in the bible; 'And God blessed them, and he said to them, "Be fruitful, increase, and fill the earth and conquer it. Reign over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air...
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(http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/AfricanSavanna/fact-afelephant.cfm) Keeping Elephants in Captive does not help conserve them. "Elephants have lived in captivity for more than 4,000 years", In captivity, whether in zoos, circuses or safari parks, they experience extremely different lifestyles compared to wild elephants. Elephants are very intelligent and social animals. In British zoos and circuses, many elephants are unnaturally kept singly or in pairs. "Wild elephants frequently bathe in mud and water. This maintains the skin and is a pleasurable experience enjoyed by whole families of elephants. Elephants also dust themselves with dry earth, which it is believed protects the elephants from the sun and insect bites."
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Little did they know that I would be outside risking my freedom for others. Who's going to stand up for those who can't speak and stand up for themselves? I always ask myself that. Just because we humans, as individuals, are living life freely and easily, it doesn't mean that everyone else is. Converting to vegetarianism wasn't enough. Adopting chickens wasn't enough. And that's how I find myself here today, standing in front of 6,000 pound elephants, asking for their freedom. I am not always doing something as drastic as a protest. On any given day, I live a typical life.
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Why is fur considered a must have fashion item? Why do people, take pleasure in wearing dead animal skins? Does it look attractive?
Why are people willing to have a living creature like you and me brutally killed for it's fur? Why is this even legal? Just because it's not illegal to kill animals for their fur does it make it right? Animals on fur farms live out their short painful lives in dark, windowless, cold sheds, surrounded by the bodies of other dead animals hanging off hooks. They are not fed or given water. The tiny metal cages used to transport the animals to the slaughter houses are thrown onto and off trucks, breaking the limbs of the innocent animals inside and injuring them badly.
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failed to function, years later the first successful transplant was achieved in 1954 it was a kidney transplant carried out by Dr. Joseph Murry, the operation was on an identical 32-year-old twins Richard and Ronald Herrick at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. The operation was successful with Richard living another eight years and Ronald the donor is still alive today. Many organs and tissues have been transplanted over the years ranging from kidneys, hearts, livers, lungs, pancreas, bone marrows ,skin, corneas, bones and small bowels can also be transplanted.
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Others say that "almost every medical treatment you use has been tested on animals including anesthetics to prevent human pain and suffering during surgery; without animal testing these drugs could not been used safely." Also that "Operations on animals helped to develop organ transplant and open-heart surgery, surgical techniques like these would not have been developed as easily without animal testing." Scientists claim there are no differences in lab animals and humans that cannot be developed into new tests creating a more reliable result.
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The aim of this is to cultivate compassion and sympathy for everyone - animals as well as other people. Right Livelihood is a way of putting incorporating this precept into your daily life. Work should benefit all living beings, so a Buddhist would not choose killing animals as part of their occupation, whether it was for research or not. The practice of metta (loving-kindness) towards all creatures is an integral part of Buddhism. An harmonious, peace-loving belief system would not condone killing animals even if it is for research. 'Do not harm others. Just as you feel affection on seeing a dearly beloved person, so you should extend lovingkindness to all creatures.'
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Again, it is most that they need to assure authorities or let them check that positive outcomes of the research are apparently possible and plausible as well as valuable. So, animals can be used in scientific research basically when there are no alternatives and results are likely and favorable for human benefit.-110 Secondly, animals used in the positive scientific researches like medicinal and teaching researches should never be the ones brought from their natural habitats and wild stations. They should either be grown up in the breeding farm or produced in bulk through artificial methods like cloning so that their use in such researches does not damage balance in ecosystem and provide challenges to natural environment.
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How far would you agree that environmental issues are more of a concern to a religious believer that to a utilitarian?
I am putting you in charge of the fish the birds and all the wild animals.' So if a Christian believer was using this as a moral guide for the environmental issue of animal rights it could be seen that we have dominion over nature. Deontological interpretations include that of Aquinas. Aquinas argued that animals are beings without souls and are lesser beings than humans. Therefore how they are treated didn't matter. Animals existed for the use of mankind alone and have no rights because they do not share our nature. Therefore it would be acceptable to test on animals because is could be a benefit to the survival of children if a cure to a
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In the 1600's, the people lived off the land of deer, turkey, squirrels, rabbits, doves, and pheasants. In truth, without the existence of hunting the colonist would not have survived. Today, very few hunters are hunting out of a need to survive. Instead, hunting has become more of a "sport". As a result, it has remained popular and many, many species have been wiped out. In Britain, the killing of animals has been taken in several forms: farmers with guns shoot at pheasants to keep them from eating their crops; a group of teenage lads going out at night to
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The dogs do not attack it all at once and put it out of its misery. Instead they are trained to disable it, so that it can not escape and then the hunters can kill it and parade its head and tail around like a trophy. The fox is not only outnumbered but it also has nowhere to run or hide. The reason that the fox has nowhere to run is that the hunters have filled in all it's holes, not considering that it might have it's young in there.
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"Experiments using animals have played a crucial role in the development of modern medical treatments, and they will continue to be necessary" states Adrian R. Morrison (University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine) in the Scientific American. Some people, like Morrison, are convinced that to restrict research with animals would prevent discoveries that would benefit humankind. Animal experimentation has enabled progress in many aspects of science for humans and it has led to many discoveries such as antibiotics, vaccines, diabetes research, organ transplants and so on.
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Virtually all of them have been animal-tested at various stages of their development. Long before they appear on the shelves of shops, these products have gone through a long testing process that leaves millions of animals mutilated, burned, poisoned and gassed in unnecessary tests. In the LD-50 test, a group of healthy animals, usually rabbits, are forced to consume amounts of a chemical, and suffer excruciating pain in the process as no anaesthetic is used. The test is complete when half of the group die, the rest of the animals are then killed, usually by cracking there neck, autopsied and analysed to see which systems of the animal broke down and why they didn't break during the test.
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An animal born in captivity can still miss, and need, its wild life. A number of people may argue that zoos have an educational value. This really is an inferior argument in favour of zoos. What sort of educational value is contained in watching animals behave in an unnatural way? We - as a group - can answer that question easily. There is little -if any- educational value for visitors to zoos. It has also been proven that animals die prematurely in zoos. For example, in 1991, twenty two of the twenty five Asiatic Lions were born in zoos around the world died.
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Weakened hosts are more vulnerable to predation and less attractive to potential mates. Some infections result in sterility. Some may alter the ratio of host males to females. In such ways, parasitic infections lower the birth rate, raise the death rate and influence intraspecific and interspecific competition. Parasites control the ecological world in number of ways. I would like to reaffirm this by using the examples from an article, "Do Parasites Rule the World?" by Carl Zimmer. Sacculina carcini, a microscopic slug plunges deep inside the depths of the crab after molting.
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Whites were viewed by the Native Americans as liars, cheaters, and hostile people. These two groups had a hard time trying to mix cultures. The Native Americans couldn't understand the Whites way of treating the land, animals, and each other. The Whites couldn't understand why the Native Americans didn't want to be Christian, and why they didn't want to join their "enlightened" way of life. A bit later, violent wars between each group became common, and the ending result is that the Whites won. Whites gave the Native Americans small areas of land to live on, which initially already belonged to them in the first place.
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more scientific mentality that accompanied the Enlightment, Before this change in legal stance, animals were often thought of as representing the power of nature but as technological advancements rendered nature increasingly under the control of humans it became less and less of an adversary until it could be viewed upon with affection and even nostalgia (Ritvo, 1983). Thus, sentimental attachment to those mammals that humans were interacting with most became widespread and is still special today, worldwide as much as in Britain.
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In helping to form our own opinion, we should address the following questions: 1. Is animal research necessary? 2. Are tests done on animals, such as drug interactions, proved to have the same effects on humans? 3. Are there any alternatives to using animals in research? In the past, animal research has played a major role in the advancement of medical treatment. The French chemist Louis Pastiur studied infectious diseases in animals and found that these diseases derived from external microorganisms.
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Antimicrobial peptides are another example of cytotoxicity that destroys many fungi, bacteria, and protoctists parasites. Agglutination, a molecular defence that involves production of molecules (agglutinins) that binds pathogens together by forming cross-links between short-chain carbohydrates on their surface. This immobilizes them near entry site, not allowing them to move about the host's body, which makes it harder for them to acquire nutrients by diffusion. All animals have agglutinins, which is something they have in common with plants. Wound closure is another type of molecular defence that prevents loss of body fluids and entrance of more pathogens.
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Geographical location is one major key component that plays a role in the genetic make-up of humans. Humans with dark skin or narrow eyes did not just randomly appear. The process of natural selection determines which complex traits will allow individuals to produce more offspring and ultimately survive longest in their environment. For example, in extremely cold geographic locations far from the equator, humans are passed on the trait of having their eyes deep set in their sockets. It is no coincidence that Eskimos look very similar to each other, this trait is to help such cultures see better and survive in the cold temperatures and harsh winds.
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Genes being responsible for behaviour, that is behaviour being the result of 'nature', include instinctive, innate and inherited behaviour. Virtually, all behaviour is influenced by genes, although they are not determined by genes
However, the study did state that environmental interaction was another factor that may contribute to antisocial acts. The estrogen-receptor gene is also attributed to mice sexual rampages. Disruption of this gene is experiments showed an almost complete shutdown of sexual behaviour in males. Absence of the 'ERa' and 'ER�' gene in male mice caused them to be unresponsive to highly receptive females, either by mating attempts or making the ultrasonic vocalisation that normally accompanies pre-mating behaviour. Sparrow mating calls are also slightly due to their inherited genes from their parents. Within the same species, there are regional variations in bird song.
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where the complex mitochondria was acquired by endosymbiosis. This allowed protoctists to switch from anaerobic respiration to aerobic respiration, which improved their energy metabolism, increased metabolic flexibility and as the atmospheric oxygen levels increased, defence systems against oxygen toxicity via free radial formation evolved. (see p33, Fig1.27,Ridge,2001) The intracellular bacterium (the symbiont) was assimilated into the larger host cell; the bacterial partner transferred many bacterial genes to the host's nucleus, which resulted in the loss of independence, and new metabolic properties for the host. In most of these interactions, the larger host protoctist takes into its cells a smaller symbiont, instead of being eaten or killed is used whilst alive as a source of new materials or properties.
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Although selective breeding seemed like the ultimate solution, there were many disadvantages to this method, including the selective process of choosing the right male and female animal for the job, the length of time it took the animals to mate (or the many attempts at artificial insemination before a fetus was created), the time it took young to be born and raised, and most importantly, the uncertainty in the expression of valued features in the offspring or the dilution of wanted traits.
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