An investigation into Tourism on the Santa Cruz Riviera, California. (inc. prefield trip report and
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An investigation into Tourism on the Santa Cruz Riviera, California. (inc. prefield trip report and INTRODUCTION Tourism can be defined as a temporary visit to an area outside the place of residence for leisure (recreation, holiday, health, study, religion and sport) or business reasons (Hoivik & Heiburg, 1980). It has become a very large business, one of the largest businesses in the world today. With annual receipts for both domestic and international tourism exceeding U.S.$2 trillion, it constitutes approximately 12 % of the world economy (Ulack, 1994). Although tourism is recognized for its impact on societies and the environment, the principle concern for host regions is its economic impacts. The industry is a large earner of foreign exchange, causing an improvement in the balance of payments situation and an increase in financial resources for development. Very important for the host areas tourism is a major source of employment and provides jobs in many services such as hotels, restaurants, entertainment facilities and travel agencies. The money earned through the industry spreads via the multiplier effect, thus facilitating regional development. In addition to the benefits of tourism to the local economies, there are certain costs to be considered, such as the increase in land values and the seasonality of the industry although these are normally compensated by the economic gains. Tourism is undoubtedly very important for the economy of the Golden State of California. Its approximate 400,000 square kilometres of land has many natural and man-made features that have attracted tourists for years. With its long stretch of coast and its associated water-sports, to Disneyland, Seaworld and Universal Studios and the tourism that they attract. San Francisco, Los Angeles and Hollywood conjure up images of tourism in their own right, together with other historic and modern towns and cities throughout the State. For the wander lust travellers, those in search of a more cultural or natural aspect, there are National Parks such as Yosemite and Big Sur, extinct gold-mining towns, Death Valley, Indian heritage or a novelty value of visiting Alcatraz.
Secondly, on the first day it was revealed that there were no distinct uses of land. The five categories originally ascertained were not evident, for example, the surfers appeared to use the sea but not the land around it for their accommodation, shops, etc. In addition, there appeared to be large residential areas along the coastal stretch which was unexpected. It was clearly evident that there was one area of extreme importance to tourism, which was previously expected, and that is the Beach Area. These new factors made it necessary to redefine the case study area and the project aims: *The new case study area was redefined as the Beach Area - which includes the Municipal Wharf, beach and Boardwalk (see fig. 3 and plates 1-5). *An investigation was to be carried out into tourism in the Beach Area, determining it's nature and economic impact. METHODOLOGY Land Use Map Walking along the coastal road between the Lighthouse and the end of the Boardwalk at the San Lorenzo River (including the Municipal Wharf), the land use was plotted. Categories such as residential, hotel/accommodation, restaurants, shops, beach etc. were chosen, and a land use map constructed once out of the field. Questionnaires (see appendices 1 & 2) Fifty questionnaires were asked to visitors, on the Beach and Boardwalk, and forty-six to residents in every shop, restaurant and hotel along the Wharf and Beach Street. Interview An interview was carried out with the Director of Public Relations of the Seaside Company, which owns the Boardwalk and various other properties in the Santa Cruz area. Library and Visitors Centre The local city library, the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) library and the Santa Cruz Visitors Centre were visited several times to research any documents and information on tourism in the area. Participant Observation Joining in and playing the part of tourists was important in this study to get an insight into tourism in Santa Cruz, together with taking photos to visually illustrate the landscape which tourism creates.
7-21. List of Figures Figure 1 - The Designated Case Study Area on the Santa Cruz Riviera. Figure 2 - The Location of Santa Cruz in California. Figure 3 - The Actual Case Study Area on the Santa Cruz Riviera. Figure 4a - Land Use Map on the Santa Cruz Riviera. Figure 4b - Overlay showing the Properties Owned by the Santa Cruz Seaside Company. Figure 5a - Residence of Respondents to the 1992 CVC Study. Figure 5b - Residence of Visitors. Figure 5c - Residence of Non-Visitors. Figure 6 - What Respondents Find Appealing about the Santa Cruz Area. Figure 7 - Activities During Visit in the Santa Cruz Area. Figure 8 - Length of Stay in the Santa Cruz Area. Figure 9 - Average Spending on Various Items Whilst Visiting the Santa Cruz Area. List of Plates Plate 1 - Taken from the Municipal Wharf, this shows the Lighthouse on the Point, and the coastal road past the State Park and Steamer Lane Surfing Area (no surf that day). This area is largely residential, displaying no distinct patterns of land use as previously expected. Plate 2 - Taken from West Cliff Drive, this shows the start of the Municipal Wharf with the Cocoanut Grove, Beach and Boardwalk in the background. Plate 3 - Taken from the end of the Municipal Wharf, this shows the sheer size of the longest drive-on pier on the West Coast. Typical diners, shops and seafood restaurants in the foreground. Plate 4 - Taken from the Municipal Wharf, this shows the Main Beach with the Cocoanut Grove and Boardwalk behind. Plate 5 - Taken on the Boardwalk, this shows it's immense length running parallel to the beach, with the amusements, rides, snacks and ice cream vendors, etc. Note the masses of people everywhere. Plate 6 - The Dream Inn, next to the Municipal Wharf on the beach. Built in 1963, this is one of the plusher hotels in Santa Cruz, and offers many conference facilities as well.
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