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Challenges of Aviemore

Free essay example:

Challenges of Aviemore

External factors affecting Aviemore

The document contains 5028 words

Was written in 2007
by Hajnalka Andrea Nagy 0706338
for Tourism and Hospitality Management (BS1210)


Executive summary

The introduction contains a brief insert about Aviemore as a tourist destination. The main body contains the Transformation process, the challenges that Aviemore has to deal with and External factors that has an impact on the Scottish tourism affecting Aviemore's tourism. The last two paragraph is the recommendation and the conclusion that emphasise how Aviemore could be a better provider than other destinations.

The aim of this report is to highlight the place's strengths and weaknesses by analysing them and helping decision-makers in what extent to develop the destination.

In the analysis positive and negative effects are considered explaining how they influence the tourism environment. These include things like why it is important for Aviemore to keep the surrounding area unspoilt, how to target overseas visitors, the empty nesters, yuppies and other single visitors and how to benefit from certain Government policies, environmental issues, domestic tourism. It is explained why it is so important to consider people's changing lifestyle, to move from quantity to quality, to offer new facilities, and to open up towards the activity holiday sector. Aviemore also benefits from technological factors like cheaper and faster transport facilities. Negative effects are also reported: Aviemore has to survive the economical instability, growing unemployment, rises in minimum wages, decreases in disposable income. The usage of Internet, the new medium, as a personal seller is considered as a more and more powerful tool in the promotional mix.

The sources are both primary and secondary sources. The information is obtained mainly from Government reports, National statistics, and market intelligence reports such as Keynote, Mintel and BBC publications. Wikipedia and Aviemore's official website as well as a field trip has been used only to gain a basic insight about the place. Journals like The Observer, The Independent, Financial Times, The Guardian and local papers gave additional and more reliable information. Other websites such as Moffat Centre, Cairngorm National Resort and Visit Scotland filled the gaps.

Although a lot of challenges Aviemore has face, it is significantly benefiting from the ever growing need for activity holidays and the Government's current initiatives, while economical trends slow down the process. With constant evaluation and analysis of the external factors and the competitive environment, and with a continuous adaptive policy, Aviemore will probably gain a stronger, more powerful position in the market, amongst its competitors on a long term basis.


Table of contents

  1. 0 Introduction                                                                1

1.1 Insight                                                                        1

1.2 Things to do                                                                1

1.3 Success                                                                2

  1. 0 Transformation process                                                3

2.1 System inputs                                                        3

2.2 Black box                                                                3

2.3 The output                                                                3

  1. 0 Challenges                                                                5

3.1 Interest of profits contra conserving the environment         5

3.2 Weather                                                                5

3.3 Accessibility                                                                5

3.4 Finding the best employments                                        5

3.5 Expansion                                                                5

  1. 0 External factors affecting Aviemore                                7

4.1 Socio-cultural                                                        7

   i, Demographics                                                7

  ii, Growing importance of the social class structure        7

 iii, Activity holiday                                                 7

 iv, Growing number of overseas visitors                        8

  v, Changing lifestyles                                                8

 vi, From quantity to quality                                        8

vii, New phenomenon: activity holidays                        8

viii, Demanding children                                        8

4.2 Environmental                                                         9

   i, Global warming                                                9

  ii, Being environmentally conscious                        9

 iii, Terrorism- viral outbreaks                                9

4.3 Economical                                                                10

   i, Affordable long-haul flights                                10

  ii, Increasing spending per holiday                         10

 iii, Economical instability                                        10

 iv, Unemployment                                                 10

  v, Disposable income                                                11

4.4 Technological                                                         11

   i, Cheap flights                                                        11

  ii, Fast train services- alternative of flying                11

 iii, Internet accessibility                                        11

 iv, Independent holidays                                        11

  v, Internet as a personal seller                                12

 vi, State of art facilities                                        12

4.5 Political- legal                                                        12

   i, Regulations, Taxations                                        12

  ii, Air Passenger Duty (APD)                                13

 iii, The Scottish Government                                        13

 iv, Increased minimum wages                                13        

  1. 0 Recommendation                                                        15        

5.1 The future                                                                15        

   i, Marketing, positioning                                        15                

  ii, Image of Scotland                                                15        

 iii, Promotion                                                         15        

 iv, Promotional gifts- freebies                                16        

  v, Exceeding expectations                                        16        

 vi, Adaptability                                                        16        

vii, Knowing the real competitors                                16        

viii, Highest standards                                                16        

 ix, Maintaining customer relations                                16        

  x, Working together                                                16        

 xi, Joint ventures                                                17        

xii, The pub                                                        17        

xiii, Scottish Enterprise                                                17

xiv, Shorter holidays                                                17

xv, Own choice of service                                        17

xvi, Conference hall                                                17

xvii, Broader international target market                        18

xviii, Single households                                                18

xix, Empty nesters                                                18

 xx, Single pound                                                        18

xxi, Yuppies- business team building                        19

xxii, Internet                                                        19

  1. 0 Conclusion                                                                20

References                                                                                21
Bibliography                                                                        27

Appendices


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Insight

Aviemore is one of the most visited towns in Scotland situated at the heart of the Scottish Highlands. With the population of 2.397  Aviemore is almost the largest town is the Cairngorm National Park.  The town became a tourist attraction first in 1960 when John Poulson started to design and develop the area around the Cairngorm Mountains. Although the developments were high in costs, the expected profit has never turned back due to the lack of snow that year. (WIKIPEDIA 10/2007)

In 2000 the leisure complex has been renewed and rebuilt. Since then the town as well as the National Park became lively again. The first skiing resort has been established in Aviemore.

Aviemore is approachable by bus from Inverness in less than 2 hours, and even in 6 hours from London or by train from any city in UK. Regular ferry services connects Rosyth with Aviemore and the Cairngorms is 2 hours.

1.2 Things to do

Aviemore is very popular for skiing, winter sports and many other outdoor activities. In 2006 a golf club opened for those wants to enjoy this traditional Scottish sport. The golf club provides practice facilities, two tier driving range and pitching and bunker area.

Aviemore has a wide range of outdoor activities such as gorge walking, walking trips, canoe trips, mountain biking, team building weekends, water-sports on local lochs, skiing and snowboarding,  and many more. (VISIT AVIEMORE 2007)

There are loads of opportunities for everyone even for beginners to ride horses, ponies or getting familiar in fishing.

The Leisure Arena gives the best opportunities for relaxing. In there there is a swimming pool, that is 25 metre in length, sauna, jacuzzi, state-of-the-art-gym and beauty spa.

The Highland attractions are the best choice for those want to spend quality time or simply want to  enjoy the wildlife. Highland Folk Museum shows wide range of domestic life, crafts and the agriculture from the 1700's. The Highland Wildlife Park  and the Glenlivet Distillery is educational for both adults and children. (VISIT AVIEMORE 2007)

The Landmark Forest Theme Park with the UK's highest timber tower is only a few miles far from the leisure complex. There are other activity options such as parachute jumps, playing areas, an areal rope course and many more.

The Fun House is for children where day-care is provided. There are bowling facilities, golf courses and game areas.

Rothiemurchus is the place where most families choose to go. This ancient Caledonian pine forest has 50 km of path that is full of opportunities for clay shooting, fishing in the wild lochs, watching wildlife or biking.

Water sport facilities are mainly gathered at Loch Morlich where everyone can try how to sail boats, kayaking, windsurfing without having any previous experience.

1.3 Success
The Spey Valley Championship Course is exceptionally successful as it is one of the eight courses that gives a „Golf Passport” to those are pursuing this traditional game in Aviemore. It has 117 holes overall, and has the longest par 5 holes in Scotland and the layout is almost 2700 yards. (MACDONALD HOTEL AND RESORT 2007)
The Cairngorm Mountain Railway is a really loveable, so special funicular railway that 2 km long with a passing loop in the middle and it is 1097 metre high. The original aim for building it was to replace the lifting chairs as they were too sensitive for that windy area as it mainly carries skiers. (WIKIPEDIA 2007)


2.0 Transformation process

2.1 System inputs

The transformation process is a special process during which from inputs we can get an output. The output in Aviemore is a service package. The reason people are choosing Aviemore is nothing else but this service package. Why this package is so successful? We could think excellent inputs make  a service package perfect, in fact it is not enough. The first and probably the most important part of the transformation process is choosing the inputs. The choice of the inputs is the answer why is it Aviemore and not another place fifty miles next to it, the same small town besides the Cairngorm  Mountains. The main inputs in this case are the hills, the scenario, the stream, the beautiful atmosphere, the world famous hospitality, the pubs.

2.2 Black box

But we should ask why Aviemore didn't become a holiday destination before the 1960's although all these inputs have already existed than. It is the added value the objective, the philosophy that someone spotted it, that someone believed in. The added value is the holiday centre, the wellness centre, the golf course, the right proportion of them, and the sport complex. In addition it is the hospitality, the meals, restaurants, chefs, kind receptionists, harmony, the distribution of the package. The wide range of information available on-line, the marketing, the positioning, that is the package.

Every single ingredient is needed for achieving the overall goal. Not perfectly achieving it would mean rooms have not been booked the day passes, the room has gone forever. Input is everything in Aviemore from the hotel with the people to the hills. The transformation process is a process during which the guest enjoys himself.

2.3 The output
The output is the good feeling of the guest and the excellent memories and the good press the mouth to mouth testimonial later. Transformation process is both the transformation of Aviemore to one of the most significant tourist complexes in Scotland and also the transformation of the inputs into a whole enjoyable holiday. Every transformation process is based on the philosophy the objective. This is the system the framework which is decided by the operator and every single service is being attached to its main spine. Every single happening follows the overall objective and that is the answer why the golf course and the technogym was built and how the proportion was decided. As the inputs can slightly change the overall concept never.


3.0 Challenges

3.1 Interest of profit contra conserving the Environment
It is a hard decision for businesses whether to spoil the environment for making bigger profits or keep the environment safe. An unspoilt environment has always other benefits and values. Listening to the singing of songbirds, eating raspberry from a shrub, watching deers is only possible where sustainability is the main priority.

3.2Weather
There are several things that Aviemore has to deal with. In terms of weather Aviemore is not situated at the best spot of the World. Aviemore has always been known as an excellent location for doing winter sports. So climate change, global warming and extremes in weather can easily damage Aviemore's reputation.

3.3 Accessibility

Aviemore is surrounded by forests, lochs and rivers, therefore a car is a must for the visitors. The majority of people doesn't like to drive during their holidays, thus these people might easily choose an other destination where public transport facilities are better.

3.4 Finding the best employees
Finding employees for the hospitality and tourism industry is probably the most difficult challenge. The combination of special skills are needed, so sometimes it isn't enough to be good in the profession, some employees have to have patience, improved language and interpersonal skills. Above all it is widely known that most people are employed for minimal wage in hospitality industry, which makes recruitment even more difficult.

3.5 Expansion
The bigger a place, the more facilities are having, the more visitors it will have. (DR. CRAIG THOMSON'S PRESENTATION 2007) Aviemore has to compete with cities like Edinburgh, London or Paris. People choose these cities over smaller destinations for clubs, cinemas and theaters, and the entertainment as a whole. Expanding is the only way overcoming this problem.


4.0 External factors affecting Aviemore

4.1 Socio - cultural

i, Demographics
Britain's population is growing dramatically. It would be straightforward that the increasing population would result in an increasing visitor numbers of Aviemore but others warn that Aviemore is mainly visited from social classes A, B and C1 and the significant number of migrants settling in the UK are from the C2, D or E social classes. Above all some three hundred thousand  British citizens are emigrating each year. They are likely to be from A, B and C1 social classes. The overall trend is rather detrimental than beneficial for Aviemore. (KEYNOTE 2002)

ii, Growing importance of the social class structure
More people are visiting a place form social classes A, B and C1 if it is widely known that the place is mainly is for this upper half. And above all is it a new phenomenon that people form C2, D and E social classes are increasingly likely to choose a holidays destinations known as appeal to higher social classes. Being known as a posh destination can be influenced by the pricing strategy as well as the highest standards in quality of service. Aviemore should emphasis its position because it would normally appeal to people form higher classes and from lower classes wanting to show their wealths as well.

iii, Activity holiday
The growing number of people doing sports regularly are demanding tourist complexes satisfying their requirements. 20% of the adults are regularly hiking, 8.3% are playing golf.(KEYNOTE 2002) These people will choose holiday destinations where they can have a so-called activity holiday. The demand for activity holidays is bigger than ever approaching 11% with expansion of the overall holiday market.(MINTEL 2006) The activity holiday sector grew by 10% from 2000.(THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT 03/2006) One third of the British population has already participated in some kind of activity holiday and half of the whole population is planning to do so in the near future. This trend will increase the number of those visiting Aviemore.(MINTEL 2007)

iv, Growing number of overseas  visitors
The number of overseas tourist growing significantly year by year. During the twelve months period ending in August 2007 it grew from 31.7 million to 32.7 million.(OFFICE OF NATIONAL STATISTICS 2007) As Aviemore is part of the ten most visited attractions of the UK this trend is definitely beneficial for Aviemore resulting in an increasing number of visitors.

v, Changing lifestyles
The ever-changing lifestyles made activity holidays attractive to more and more people. The new generation as well as the empty-nesters are more likely to choose activity holidays than ever. Skiing holidays and golfing trips are the most attractive. Aviemore in the perfect center for both activities. (MINTEL 03/2006)

vi, From quantity towards quality

In recent years significant changes happened in the tourism industry. As a decade ago Spain was the main holiday destination. The number of Brits choosing Spanish holidays dropped significantly while the emphasis was shifted to quality holidays. People looking for these will choose activity holidays offered by Aviemore.(NEWSWISE 2007)


vii, New phenomenon: activity holidays

Activity holidays and sport holidays are seen as treats. Today the baby boomer generation is increasingly likely to opt for a treat. These so-called treats are usually three to five days long domestic holidays. Aviemore is again the perfect location for these treats. A staggering two third of the population is regularly going on holidays.(KEYNOTE 2006) They go for a holiday at least a week each year. The proportion is likely to grow as even a bigger proportion is planning to do so.

viii, Demanding children
Children of the twenty first century have much specialised needs and wants than ours or even our parents'. Their demands are even more specific when it comes to holidays. They keen to choose destinations where Theme Parks are available. Aviemore is one of them. Even parents consider how a holiday destination could appeal to their kids. Kids menu, goody bags, playgrounds are just some of the many features holiday complexes should offer if don't want to loose out. (VISIT AVIEMORE 2007)

4.2 Environmental

i, Global warming
Nowadays people are more likely to book their holidays in the last minutes, as it is the only way how extremes in weather conditions can be avoided. A much bigger proportion would choose domestic holidays if the weather was better. Current trends like global warming would definitely result in a bigger number of domestic holidays and more people will visit Aviemore as well.(THE GUARDIAN 2007)

ii, Being environmentally conscious
Reducing the personal carbon footprint is getting increasingly important for more and more people. Those are much more likely to choose domestic holidays that is good for Aviemore. EasyJet is very poplar amongst those class themselves environmentally conscious. It is widely known that EasyJet has the least empty seats resulting in lower CO2 emission per passenger. EasyJet has new routes to and from Inverness that could encourage people from Southern England to visit Aviemore and the region around it.

iii, Terrorism – viral outbreaks
In recent years September the 11th and the SARS outbreak (PEZOLLA 2007) strongly affected the sector of  tourism.(THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT 03/2006) The number of both international and domestic tourist routes dropped.(MINTEL 2006) At the same time tourist routes to Scotland remained steady strengthening the position of Aviemore.


4.3 Economical

i, Affordable long-haul flights
Certain long-haul flights could be affordable for those previously chose domestic holidays for financial reasons. This group would rather choose international holidays although it will not reduce the visitor numbers of Aviemore because these people would find Aviemore far too expensive.(THE GUARDIAN 2001) These people are not Aviemore's main target group.

ii, Increasing spending per holiday
Statistics show that a staggering 29% more money is spent on an average holiday this year than in 2000.(MINTEL 03/2006) It could easily mean that Aviemore would be able to maintain its turnover with even a decreasing number of visitors.
Spendings in Aviemore grew dramatically as Aviemore's turnover increased by 33% in only one year
(FINANCIAL TIMES 2006), although the number of their visitors didn't follow the same trend. It is stunning though shouldn't be projected to the following years.

iii, Economical instability
Political and Economical instability can lead to decreasing demand of holidays. Rising interest rates, the less availability of credit, recent credit crises, expected drop in housing prices, Gordon Brown's proposal regarding revoked snap election negatively affects sectors like tourism. In these periods people choose saving money rather than spending it.

iv, Unemployment
Unemployment has risen significantly in the last tree years. That would  normally prevent people from going to holidays and although the number of unemployed went down last months (SCOTLAND OFFICE 2007), people tend to think in trends convincing themselves that the state of the economy is worsening. People are more likely to save rather than travel during these difficult times. Until the future can't be seen people are staying home or choosing some cheap holidays in Spain rather than an activity holiday in Aviemore.

v, Disposable income
Recent statistics show that even though incomes are generally growing (BBC NEWS SCOTLAND 2007), disposable income is decreasing. The cost of living is becoming increasingly high lowering the money could be spent on luxury goods and holidays. Frequent price rises makes people more price sensitive, makes people less likely to choose a holiday in Aviemore. (SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT  03/2006)

4.4 Technological

i, Cheap flights
The ever growing competition in the aviation industry boosts the prosperity of Aviemore. Flying is affordable than ever a London -Inverness flight could be as little as  Ł18. It is now easier and cheaper than ever to go to Aviemore from any places in the UK.

ii, Fast train services – an alternative of flying

Choosing train services for domestic destinations, like Aviemore can be an alternative for those with fear of flying. It can even be accessible by train in less than 6 hours from London. The increasingly difficult and time consuming check-in procedures can also result into a decrease of flying. Aviemore will be always the perfect alternative for those would like to have a high quality holiday but would like to avoid the fuss and the hustle.

iii, Internet accessibility
People would only choose a destination if there is sufficient available information about it when arranging their independent holidays. These people would like to see pictures of desired location as well as sufficient information about the wider area. As the Aviemore tourist complexes and Aviemore as well has an excellent web portal it is likely to be chosen. The Internet can even appeal to those afraid traveling to unknown destinations. Internet has changed the way of traveling dramatically in  the recent decade.

iv, Independent holidays
The widely available on-line booking facilities significantly contribute to an easier arrangement in an independent holiday. Therefore independent holidays are getting more chosen than ever. Internet is the perfect medium for booking flights, trains, hotel accommodations and even for buying local bus tickets. Aviemore offers these booking methods. Nowadays people would rather build up their own holiday package (KEYNOTE 2006) and Internet is the only way doing it so. Telephone booking can not be seen as substitute.

v, Internet as personal seller
Internet is not just a tool of marketing for Aviemore. It is more. It acts as a personal selling method encouraging people to visit it despite of the difficulties of getting there. It reassures and encourages people would have never visited Aviemore without collecting information about it on-line. The Internet provides ways of building up a complex holiday package with all the activities and programs. Internet is a powerful tool for small towns like Aviemore. It is equally beneficial for the biggest hotels and for small Bed and Breakfasts as well. Internet is expanding the tourism industry by marketing places other than the most tourist attractions. Being available on-line is cheap, it can easily be affordable for Bed and Breakfasts, Hotels and hostels equally.

vi, State of art facilities
Technological advances increase the quality of services provided by Aviemore. Today it would be impossible what happened in the 1960's when the newly built Aviemore made huge losses. As literally no winters were coming the following years that spoilt Aviemore's positioning as capital of winter spotrs. Today not just snow cannons but perfectly built snow courses and the state of the art the technogym are attracting visitors. That makes the service homogene, the quality stable, never fluctuating. People can always expect the best regardless of weather and other conditions.

4.5 Political - legal

i, Regulations, Taxations

The Transatlantic Airline Market has just been liberalized in march 2007 as the ministers of European transport approved that airlines from EU will be allowed to fly to any point in the United States, while any carriers of United States will be able to serve Heathrow and the internal EU routes.(KEYNOTE 2007)

This would mean that the free movement between the two continents will not be under control and the number of overseas visitors will significantly rise.

The agreement will affect the four airlines that were the constant carriers of US and British passengers: American Airlines, Virgin, British Airways and United Airlines.(KEYNOTE 2007)

This agreement will have a huge impact on Aviemore's tourism as a very high percentage of international tourist have always been American. The more airlines will be operating from America directly to Scotland, the more tourist would possibly visit the town. Unfortunately no one knows how the competition between the airlines will change the ticket prices as the four airlines did not drop their prices, and they were accused of price fixing as well. And above all, only 30% of American citizens hold passports. (MINTEL 2006)

ii, Air Passenger Duty(APD)
In 1994 the Conservative Government introduced APD for the first time.(KEYNOTE 2007) Prime Minister Gordon Brown, the then Chancellor of the Exchequer doubled it from February 2007. This meant that long-haul flights' duty has risen significantly while those short ones although doubled, but remained affordable. This could lead to a more profitable domestic tourism in Britain, but can act as a deterrent in intercontinental travel.

iii,The Scottish Government
Developing the tourism sector is one of the main priorities of the Scottish Government.(THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT 2006) The Government funded Tourism Research Network collects data, examines recent trends and advises businesses working in this industry.

iv,Increased  minimum wages
A sectors like hospitality traditionally never pay more than the minimum wage to their employees. Frequent increases in the minimum wage affect negatively Aviemore's finances. Normally when the minimum wage rises Aviemore should consider increasing its prices or making redundant some of its employees. The trend has an overall negative affect because the average wage doesn't increase as much as the minimum wage, so Aviemore can not just increase its prices should the minimum wage be increased.


5.0 Recommendations

5.1 The future

Aviemore's future is probably more complex than could be predicted. The overall trends show that modern people have higher expectations than ever, therefore Aviemore has to fulfill people's needs. That means that Aviemore has to position itself accordingly. Achieving the expected standard is not enough anymore. Exceeding it is the only way of getting to the top of in this industry. Finding something new, something different, but acceptable is hard and risky, but is needed for retaining the position in the market.

i, Marketing – positioning
Aviemore is in the middle of the Highlands in the heart of Scotland, in the heart of History. These features should be emphasize more. It should be understood, that everything known about Scotland can contribute to the growing number of visitors in Aviemore. Every single scotch whisky sold abroad can be a start of a process that ends in a visit.

ii, Image of Scotland
The positive image of Scotland can result in a growing number of visitors in Aviemore. It is a complex image. By hearing the word “Scotland” most of the people would think about the whisky, then about the Scottish pubs, the music can be heard in these pubs, the pipers and of course the kilt worn by the pipers. These kind of images about a country are more important then it has always been thought. This kind of image is extremely attractive for the overseas visitors. Overseas visitors usually have only a couple of stereotypes about different European nations. Scotland is one of them, maybe the strongest. The complex image of Scotland can be accountable for many overseas visits in Scotland.(BBC NEWS 2007)

iii, Promotion
Promotion is always an important tool. Continuous promotions can have a very positive effect. Although some groups especially form higher social classes would consider it “too cheap”. Discounts shouldn't be given in bulk, shouldn't be advertised, discounts should be given in person using personal selling techniques.

iv, Promotional gifts – freebies
Reassuring the customers that they are always welcome. Offering the free nights would prevent them using the services of competitor.

v, Exceeding expectations
The hospitality sector is a special sector where it is expected that providers would exceed expectations of customers. It should be understood that exceeding expectations is the only way making them coming back.

vi, Adaptability

Hospitality and tourism is an ever changing market. Every single service and feature should be adapted to new requirements to needs and wants.

vii, Knowing the real competitors

The competition is fierce. The competitors are not just hotels and towns surrounding Aviemore, but other holiday destinations in other continents as well. Differentiating the service form others can be only done by creating a unique atmosphere. That is the only means that brings back customers.

viii, Highest standards
Aviemore is too small to affect any external factors from the PESTEL framework. It can only influence its own service and the marketing variables. The services itself, the way providing services and the distribution channels that Aviemore should influence to operate them according to the highest standards. These are the only ways Aviemore can prevent to be substituted by an other holiday destination.

ix, Maintaining customer relations
The main priority should be maintaining customer relations. It is six times more costly to find a new customer than to keep one.

x, Working together

It should be understood by Aviemore that the Scottish travel and hospitality industry is a whole. Scottish holiday providers shouldn't be treated the same way as English or overseas competitors. As Aviemore looses one customer that chose a near town it would overall boost the Scottish tourism and hospitality sector. And if he or she was satisfied with the service got, their family members, friends, relatives would possibly visit the same area and possibly would choose Aviemore that time.

xi, Joint ventures
The Scottish Government should encourage initiatives where joint tickets would allow holidaymakers to visit more than one destinations. The scheme could work like joint ventures when accessing foreign markets. Scottish holiday providers should join in, and do marketing jointly. This could give competitive advantage to any other regions in the world. (CORNELL UNIVERSITY LAW SCHOOL 2007)

xii, The Pub 
The most significant part in the image of Scotland is the pub. Holiday providers should build as many pubs according to the highest standards as they can. These pubs should have everything being considered Scottish. Interior, music, Scottish beers, ales and the kilt as well. Other team pubs should also be built: Latin-American or even German style pubs would target mainly overseas visitors.

xiii, Scottish Enterprise

The Scottish Government through Scottish Enterprise should consider more incentives and funds available for businesses from the Highlands.(FINANCIAL TIMES 2006) It should be understood that the Highland has a unique appeal to foreign visitors.

xiv, Shorter holidays

Aviemore should adapt to the new age's needs. People spend shorter holidays more frequently than decades ago. It should encourage visitors to come for only one, two or tree days.  These kind of things should not be a problem.(THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT 2007)

xv, Own choice of services
Aviemore should be very flexible in terms of payments and in the choice of services. Everyone should have the ability to choose all the services he or she needs and never pay for something being in the bulk but never being used.

xvi, Conference hall

Aviemore should consider whether to maintain or modify its conference centre. Facilities should be adapted to the new requirements. Certainly more and more company will choose Internet as the easier and definitely cheaper way of meeting. The conference centres would only apply to representative events. Party conferences like the SNP's annually conference would never be held on-line. Aviemore should start its conference centre adapting to the 21st  century's requirements.

xvii, Broader international target market
The growing number of overseas visitors show that Aviemore can appeal to tourist from other continents. Although non-Englishspeaking visitors are less likely to come than those are coming from America, Australia or Canada. (THE INDEPENDENT 2007) It would also be reasonable to market Aviemore in languages other than English.

xviii, Single households
According to recent statistics of single households significant rises has appeared amongst seventies. 30% of all is living alone. The average age when people are getting married is also expanded above 30 increasing the number of years living alone. Aviemore in its current state can hardly appeal to those living alone. Aviemore should consider that these young adults could become their target group by the time. Therefore installing single rooms and market Aviemore as the perfect place for a single holiday would be inevitable.

xix, Empty-nesters
Aviemore should also target empty-nesters as this group becomes extremely powerful in financial terms. Although it should always be considered how these repositioning affect other social classes and groups like yuppies. Aviemore should always consider that repositioning could have adverse effects.(TOURISM QUEENSLAND 2002)

xx, Single pound
Aviemore should build a string of single hotel rooms and build up packages for those coming alone. It would be the single biggest sector not attracted currently by any other means. All the facilities should prevent single visitors feeling that they are single visitors. (TRIP ADVISOR 2005)

xxi, Yuppies – business team building
It would be rewarding targeting the yuppies. There lifestyles values would definitely bring freshness to Aviemore. Satisfying their extreme and fast demands would be challenging but equally rewarding for Aviemore. Aviemore should position and market itself as the prefect location for team building camps providing facilities for extreme or traditional group building exercises including camping in the surrounding forests. (HINDUSTAN TIMES 2007)

xxii, Internet
Tourism industry is a pure service industry. If a holiday place was not booked before the start of the holiday the place is gone. The Internet is more significant than anything else in marketing last minute holidays. Therefore package holidays are more likely to operate on a full capacity basis. The evoked set can be easily compared on-line, choosing the appropriate holiday package couldn't be simpler. It is difficult to describe how significant these trends are for Aviemore. Certainly thousand of visitors would have never visited Aviemore if Internet didn't exist.


6.0 Conclusion

Several factors to be considered when drawing the conclusions.  The main factors are the growing population, the changing lifestyle, and therefore the ever growing demand for activity holidays.

Aviemore will be benefiting of the increasing number of  overseas visitors as the image of Scotland is becoming much more known, differentiated around the world. Promotions, gratis nights and the high standard service are equally accountable for the success of repositioning Aviemore.

Aviemore has to adapt to the new requirements like enabling shorter holiday-bookings: from minimum 3 nights to 2 or even 1. Being flexible in terms of payment and the set of choice will expand the target market such as empty nesters, single visitors, Yuppies. International prospective clients will also increase the demand for hotel nights: the growing number of overseas visitors can be seen as feedback proving that Aviemore exceeds expectations.

Positioning itself as a 'posh' place will bring people from higher social classes as well as from the lower ones as it is equally important for both classes to be seen in certain places. Traditional Scottish pubs as well as European ones will also appeal to all these people.

The demand of booked domestic and international holidays will be even higher by the fast development of technology. Technological factors will also improve the quality of services provided by Aviemore, especially its gym, swimming and skiing facilities.

It is rewarding using the new medium, Internet, as a personal seller because it can increase significantly the number of booked nights by appealing to a wide range of potential visitors from around the World.

Aviemore could be extremely successful if it would be able to accomplish all these and also could gain more funds from Scottish Enterprise initiatives. It is also worth considering joining joint venture schemes, trying to work together with other local businesses and tourist attractions. With all these Aviemore could build a strong position in the competitive environment and maintain good relationships with its customers.


References

Keynote 2006 Holiday Purchasing Patterns  [on-line] available at:
http://www.keynote.co.uk/kn2k1/CnIsapi.dll?nuni=74020&usr=12266srv=03&alias=kn2k1&uni=1194059435&fld=K&noLog=1&frompage=Summ&key=2763
[Accessed  on 19th October]

Aviemore's Official Website [on-line] available at:
http://www.aviemore.co.uk/
[Accessed  on 19th October]

Wikipedia 2007, Aviemore [on-line] available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aviemore
[Accessed  on 19th October]

Office of National Statistics 2007 Travel & Tourism [on-line] available at:
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=352&Pos=1&ColRank=1&Rank=208
[Accessed  on 19
th October]

The Scottish Government 2006, Promotion of Scotland [on-line] available at:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Tourism-Culture-Sports/TrendPromotionScotland
[Accessed  on 19th October]

The Scottish Government 03/2006 Scottish tourism: The next decade [on-line] available at:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/03/03145848/1
[
Accessed  on 20th October]

Mintel report  2006, Holidays - The Impact of Terrorism & Natural Disasters - UK –  [on-line] available at:
http://oxygen.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen/search_results/show&/display/id=173580
[Accessed  on 20th October]

Visit Aviemore 2007, Aviemore and Cairngorm National Park official website   Landmark Forest Theme Park [on-line] available at:
http://www.visitaviemore.com/Landmark.html
[Accessed  on 20th October]

Key Note 2007, Travel and tourism market [on-line] available at:
http://www.keynote.co.uk/kn2k1/CnIsapi.dll?nuni=15099&usr=15750srv=02&alias=kn2k1&uni=1192663064&fld=K&noLog=1&NotInWorkset=1&key=475
[Accessed  on 21th October]

Mintel 2007 [on-line] available at:

http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=173582/display/id=198219
[Accessed  on 21th October]

Key Note 2007 Market trends Travel and tourism  available at:
http://www.keynote.co.uk/kn2k1/CnIsapi.dll?nuni=42287&usr=15750srv=02&alias=kn2k1&uni=1192662823&fld=K&noLog=1&NotInWorkset=1&key=988
[Accessed  on 22th October]

Key Note 2002, Sport [on-line] available at:
http://www.keynote.co.uk/kn2k1/CnIsapi.dll?nuni=33155&usr=15750srv=02&alias=kn2k1&uni=1192661333&fld=K&noLog=1&NotInWorkset=1&key=12446
[Accessed  on 22th October]

Mintel 2006  Sporting Activities in the Great Outdoors [on-line] available at:

http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=173582
[Accessed  on 23th October]

Mintel 03/2006, British on Holiday at Home [on-line] available at:
http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=173585
[Accessed  on 25th October]

Mintel Statistics 03/2006  British on Holiday at Home [on-line] available at:
http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=173585/display/id=206164
[Accessed  on 25th October]

The Financial Times  [on-line] available at:
https://eiw.rgu.ac.uk/ft/quickSearchDisplayRecord.do?queryString=aviemore&articleWordsContaining=all&sortType=relevance&pageSize=25&pageNum=1&index=3
[Accessed  on 28th October]

Scotland Office 2007, Unemployment in Scotland Falls: ONS Figures  [on-line] available at:
http://www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk/our-communications/release.php?id=3627
[Accessed on 28th October]

Key Note 2002 Leisure and Travel[on-line] available at:
http://www.keynote.co.uk/kn2k1/CnIsapi.dll?nuni=7507&usr=15750srv=02&alias=kn2k1&uni=1192652927&fld=K&noLog=1&frompage=Summ&key=4174
[Accessed on 28th October]

Financial Times 2006 Scotland's ski industry balances precariously [on-line] available at:
http://search.ft.com/ftArticle?queryText=+tourism+scotland&y=0&aje=false&x=0&id=060110001093&ct=0
[Accessed on 29th October]

The Guardian 2007, Go wild in the country  [on-line] available at:
http://books.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,2125860,00.html
[Accessed on 29th October]

The Guardian 2001 In Brief [on-line] available at:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2001/nov/03/guardiansaturdaytravelsection
[
Accessed on 29th October]

The Independent 2007, Summertime and business is awful [on-line] available at:
http://news.independent.co.uk/business/analysis_and_features/article2881442.ece
[Accessed on 29th October]

News wise 2007 „Quality over quantity” Remains the Holiday Trend [on-line] available at:
http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/535183/
[Accessed on 29th October]

Cornell University Law School 2007 Joint Venture  [on-line] available at:
http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/index.php/Joint_venture
[Accessed on 29th October]

Trip Advisor 2005, Macdonald Aviemore Highland Resort: Travelers Reviews  [on-line] available at:
http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g186537-d499890-r4147235-Macdonald_Aviemore_Highland_Resort-Aviemore_Badenoch_and_Strathspey_Scottish_Highlands_Scotland.html
[Accessed on 29th October]

BBC News 2007, Brian Taylor: Tartan or tour [on-line] available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/briantaylor/2007/10/tartan_on_tour.html
[Accessed on 30th  October]

Hindustan Times 2007, Madhusree Chatterjee Bhowmik: Single yuppies blaze tourism's new frontier [on-line] available at:
http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=8fbf5416-7f66-4902-8670-9903c423f3cd&&Headline=Single+yuppies+blaze+tourism%e2%80%99s+new+frontier
[Accessed on 30th  October]

Tourism Queensland 2002 Farmstay  Tourism   [on-line] available at:
http://tq.com.au/fms/tq_corporate/research/fact_sheets/farmstay_tourism.pdf
[Accessed on 30th  October]

The Observer 2007 Lissa Pezolla: How about having an eyescan to get on planes?  [on-line] available at:
http://www.theobserver.com/articles/2007/11/07/publishers_col/doc4730a1dc26775090910853.txt
[Accessed on 30th  October]

Macdonald Hotel and Resort website 2007 [on-line] available at:
http://www.macdonaldhotels.co.uk/golf/courses/course_speyValley.htm
Accessed on 30th October

Wikipedia website 2007 [on-line] available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairngorm_Mountain_Railway
[Accessed on 30th  October]


Bibliography

Cairngorm vision 2005 Executive summary for Inverness, Niam, Badenoch & Strathspey Enterprise. [on-line] available at:
http://www.hie.co.uk/HIE%20-%20tourism/cairngormvision.pdf
[Accessed on 30th  October]

 Rothiemurchus official website 2007 [on-line] available at:
http://www.rothiemurchus.net/lochaneilein.html#
and
http://www.rothiemurchus.net/planning.html
[Accessed on 3

Mintel report 2006 Outbound Travel-US-September 2006

http://oxygen.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen/search_results/show&/display/id=168018
[Accessed on 2nd November]

Moffat Centre for Travel and Tourism 2007 [on-line] available at:
http://www.moffatcentre.com/publications/pdfs/VABs/AugVAB07.pdf
[Accessed on 2
nd November]

Aviemore Golf Information Portal 2006 [on-line] available at:
http://www.aviemoregolf.com/news.htm
[
Accessed on 2nd November]

BBC News  08/2006, Private tourism firm begins work [on-line] available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/highlands_and_islands/5314502.stm?ls-%2042k%20-
[Accessed on 2nd November]

Guardian Unlimited 2007, Scotland leads the way in responsible tourism [on-line] available at:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/nov/14/conservation.wildlife
[Accesses on 5th November]


Appendices

Appendix A.

All Activity Holidays Taken During the Past 5 Years (% of respondents), 2005

profile

Purchasing Profile%

Penetration%

All adults

100.0

100.0

36.1

male

49.9

61.9

44.7

female

50.1

38.1

27.4

Age

16-19

6.0

9.5

57.4

20-24

6.9

7.3

38.2

25-34

22.9

26.8

42.2

35-44

14.7

13.8

33.8

45-54

18.1

19.8

39.4

55-64

12.8

11.1

31.2

65+

18.6

11.7

22.7

Social grade

A

4.7

7.6

58.8

B

16.6

19.9

43.1

C1

26.7

27.8

37.6

C2

37.7

35.7

34.1

D

12.2

8.3

24.6

E

2.1

0.7

11.6

Working Status

Working full time

45.1

51.2

41.0

Not working

15.0

15.8

37.9

Retired

24.2

16.8

25.1

Marital status

Married

59.7

56.7

34.2

Single

25.7

31.3

44.0

Widowed, divorced, separated

14.2

11.7

104.1

Source: KeyNote/NEMS Market Research November 2005


Appendix B

UK Household Disposable Income per Capita (£), 2001-2005

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

% change 2001-2005

Household disposable income(£)

11.643

11.952

12.433

12.796

13.300

14.2

% change year-on-year

  _

2.7

4.0

2.9

3.9

Keynote statistics 2006
Source: Economic Trends, August 2006, National Statistics website

Appendix C

Scottish Visitor Attraction Barometer August 2007 Report

Performance by VisitScotland Region –

August 2007/2006 and January-August 2007/2006

Region

Aug-07

Aug-06

% Change

Jan-Aug 07

Jan-Aug 06

% Change

Highlands of Scotland (75)

570,040

557,137

2.3

2,083,620

2,041,954

2.0


Appendix D

Actual Number of Unemployed Persons in the UK (million), 2002-2006

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Actual number of claimants (million)

0.95

0.93

0.85

0.86

0.94

Changes

year-on-year

_

-2.1

-8.6

1.2

9.3

Keynote report 2007
Source: Monthly Digest of Statistics, May 2007, National Statistics website

Appendix E

The Forecast Total UK Market for Hotel Accommodation by Value (£m), 2000-2009

image00.png


Appendix F

image01.png

FURTHER ON-LINE STATISTICS  AT:

http://www.staruk.com//default.asp?ID=659&parentid=469

http://www.staruk.com//default.asp?ID=388&parentid=512

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