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Critically analyse the proposition that strategic management is a creative process through which business strategy emerges over time.

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Strategic Management Essay Topic 1: Critically analyse the proposition that strategic management is a creative process through which business strategy emerges over time. Currently in any company decisions are taken in order to obtain the most perfect as possible ways of being generally the first in a market. Strategies, and more particularly the strategic management, are used as a basis of the good development of an organisation. It exists several systems of strategy, and it is at the organisation to find out which one is the most appropriate and the most efficient for its growth. Even if they are perfectly competent, authors and specialists are unable to give, to a specific company, the right strategy to follow, there are so many of them and sometimes managers are using several strategy at the same time. So as to be as effective as possible a company needs obviously to analyse its strength and weaknesses and look on what is already done by other company. This analyse will offer to the company abilities to organise itself for controlling the market and triumphing against the competitors. In order to discover the place of the strategic management in the emergent process and to learn about the emergence of strategies in a company, it is important to firstly define the strategy and the strategic management in the organisational context. Secondly, analysing the different schools of thought, which can offer to the companies a way to figure out what they are really suppose to achieve and to reach. And finally, it is necessary to detail if it is possible the strategic management as a creative process allowing the emergence of business strategy. Giving a right definition of strategy is quite hard, it is important to notice that it can be apply in several sectors, and there are many authors who develop more or less this concept as to give the key issues for the future of organisation (Johnson et al. ...read more.


Strategy in organisations has different ways to develop itself, Mintzberg (1990) starts the debate by discussing and critiquing the design school; thereafter he presents the emerging strategy school. Johnson et al. (2009) relate that there are in the strategy development two large explanation: the rational-analytic view and the emergent strategy. While Campbell et al. (2002) oppose the notions of planned or perspective strategy to the emergent one and Mintzberg and Waters (2004) talk about the deliberate and the emergent strategy. Beside, De Wit and Meyer (2010) highlight that there is a paradox of deliberateness and emergence. For Mintzberg et al. (2009), there are prescriptive schools: the design, planning and positioning schools, and descriptive schools like the entrepreneurial, cognitive, learning, power, cultural and environmental schools. It exists as well the configuration school of thought, which combine both prescriptive and descriptive ones. In a same way the deliberate and the planned approaches of the strategy view the formulation and the implementation of strategic management as a "logical, rational and systematic process" (Campbell et al. 2002 p.293). In this process the formulation of the strategy is easy, it is implementation that is difficult to achieve, Faulkner and Campbell (2003), in their critics of rationalism, use the example of Napoleon's defeat in Russia, it might be assumed that there was a failure in the strategy or in the implementation. Mintzberg and Waters (2004), Johnson et al. (2009) and Campbell et al. (2002) agree on the evidence that, in a pure deliberate strategy, finding intentions by providing objectives focus on the business is the first step. Afterwards so as to measure and monitor the performance, the person in charge translates objectives into targets. Then, Mintzberg and Waters (2004 p.18) argue that those objectives are collective intentions and they must be realised "exactly as intended" without not any help from the external environment. The emergent or the incremental strategy adopts the position that strategy must be developed incrementally over time in the absence of a strict planning. ...read more.


and Miller, A. 1993. Strategic Management. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Inc. De Wit, B., and Meyer, R. 2010. Strategy Process, Content, Context an International Perspective. 4th ed. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA. Elliott, I. 2011. What is Strategy?. ?lecture? September 2011. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University. Faulkner, D. O., and Campbell, A. 2003. The Oxford Handbook of Strategy. Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press. Johnson, G. 1987. Strategic Change and the management process. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R. 2009. Fundamentals of Strategy. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Johnson, G., Whittington, R. and Scholes, K. 2011. Exploring Strategy. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Joyce, P. and Woods, A. 2001. Strategic Management a fresh approach to developing skills, knowledge and creativity. London: Kogan Page Limited. Lynch, R. 2009. Strategic Management. 5th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Macmillan, H. and Tampoe, M. 2000. Strategic management. New York: Oxford University Press. McGee, J., Thomas, H. and Wilson, D. 2005. Strategy: analysis and practice. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education. Mintzberg, H. 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review, July-August, pp. 66-75. Mintzberg, H. (1990). The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises. Strategic Management Strategic Management Journal, (11), pp. 171-195. Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B. and Lampel, J. 2009. Strategy safary : your complete guide through the wilds of strategic management. 2nd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Mintzberg, H., Quinn, J. B., and Ghoshal, S. 1998. The Strategy Process. Revised European ed. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Europe. Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J.A. 2004. Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. In : Segal-Horn, S. ed. The Strategy Reader. Oxford: Blackwell in association with the Open University, pp. 17-28. Pettinger, R. 2004. Contemporary strategic management. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Porter, M. 2004. What is strategy? In: Segal-Horn, S. ed. The Strategy Reader. Oxford: Blackwell in association with the Open University, pp. 41-62. Thompson, J., and Martin, F. 2005. Strategic Management Awareness and Change. 5th ed. London: Thomson Learning. Whittington, R. 2001. What is strategy - and does it matter?. 2nd ed. London: Thomson Learning. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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