• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically analyse the proposition that strategic management is a creative process through which business strategy emerges over time.

Extracts from this document...


Strategic Management Essay Topic 1: Critically analyse the proposition that strategic management is a creative process through which business strategy emerges over time. Currently in any company decisions are taken in order to obtain the most perfect as possible ways of being generally the first in a market. Strategies, and more particularly the strategic management, are used as a basis of the good development of an organisation. It exists several systems of strategy, and it is at the organisation to find out which one is the most appropriate and the most efficient for its growth. Even if they are perfectly competent, authors and specialists are unable to give, to a specific company, the right strategy to follow, there are so many of them and sometimes managers are using several strategy at the same time. So as to be as effective as possible a company needs obviously to analyse its strength and weaknesses and look on what is already done by other company. This analyse will offer to the company abilities to organise itself for controlling the market and triumphing against the competitors. In order to discover the place of the strategic management in the emergent process and to learn about the emergence of strategies in a company, it is important to firstly define the strategy and the strategic management in the organisational context. Secondly, analysing the different schools of thought, which can offer to the companies a way to figure out what they are really suppose to achieve and to reach. And finally, it is necessary to detail if it is possible the strategic management as a creative process allowing the emergence of business strategy. Giving a right definition of strategy is quite hard, it is important to notice that it can be apply in several sectors, and there are many authors who develop more or less this concept as to give the key issues for the future of organisation (Johnson et al. ...read more.


Strategy in organisations has different ways to develop itself, Mintzberg (1990) starts the debate by discussing and critiquing the design school; thereafter he presents the emerging strategy school. Johnson et al. (2009) relate that there are in the strategy development two large explanation: the rational-analytic view and the emergent strategy. While Campbell et al. (2002) oppose the notions of planned or perspective strategy to the emergent one and Mintzberg and Waters (2004) talk about the deliberate and the emergent strategy. Beside, De Wit and Meyer (2010) highlight that there is a paradox of deliberateness and emergence. For Mintzberg et al. (2009), there are prescriptive schools: the design, planning and positioning schools, and descriptive schools like the entrepreneurial, cognitive, learning, power, cultural and environmental schools. It exists as well the configuration school of thought, which combine both prescriptive and descriptive ones. In a same way the deliberate and the planned approaches of the strategy view the formulation and the implementation of strategic management as a "logical, rational and systematic process" (Campbell et al. 2002 p.293). In this process the formulation of the strategy is easy, it is implementation that is difficult to achieve, Faulkner and Campbell (2003), in their critics of rationalism, use the example of Napoleon's defeat in Russia, it might be assumed that there was a failure in the strategy or in the implementation. Mintzberg and Waters (2004), Johnson et al. (2009) and Campbell et al. (2002) agree on the evidence that, in a pure deliberate strategy, finding intentions by providing objectives focus on the business is the first step. Afterwards so as to measure and monitor the performance, the person in charge translates objectives into targets. Then, Mintzberg and Waters (2004 p.18) argue that those objectives are collective intentions and they must be realised "exactly as intended" without not any help from the external environment. The emergent or the incremental strategy adopts the position that strategy must be developed incrementally over time in the absence of a strict planning. ...read more.


and Miller, A. 1993. Strategic Management. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Inc. De Wit, B., and Meyer, R. 2010. Strategy Process, Content, Context an International Perspective. 4th ed. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA. Elliott, I. 2011. What is Strategy?. ?lecture? September 2011. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University. Faulkner, D. O., and Campbell, A. 2003. The Oxford Handbook of Strategy. Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press. Johnson, G. 1987. Strategic Change and the management process. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R. 2009. Fundamentals of Strategy. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Johnson, G., Whittington, R. and Scholes, K. 2011. Exploring Strategy. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Joyce, P. and Woods, A. 2001. Strategic Management a fresh approach to developing skills, knowledge and creativity. London: Kogan Page Limited. Lynch, R. 2009. Strategic Management. 5th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Macmillan, H. and Tampoe, M. 2000. Strategic management. New York: Oxford University Press. McGee, J., Thomas, H. and Wilson, D. 2005. Strategy: analysis and practice. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education. Mintzberg, H. 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review, July-August, pp. 66-75. Mintzberg, H. (1990). The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises. Strategic Management Strategic Management Journal, (11), pp. 171-195. Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B. and Lampel, J. 2009. Strategy safary : your complete guide through the wilds of strategic management. 2nd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Mintzberg, H., Quinn, J. B., and Ghoshal, S. 1998. The Strategy Process. Revised European ed. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Europe. Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J.A. 2004. Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. In : Segal-Horn, S. ed. The Strategy Reader. Oxford: Blackwell in association with the Open University, pp. 17-28. Pettinger, R. 2004. Contemporary strategic management. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Porter, M. 2004. What is strategy? In: Segal-Horn, S. ed. The Strategy Reader. Oxford: Blackwell in association with the Open University, pp. 41-62. Thompson, J., and Martin, F. 2005. Strategic Management Awareness and Change. 5th ed. London: Thomson Learning. Whittington, R. 2001. What is strategy - and does it matter?. 2nd ed. London: Thomson Learning. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Management Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Management Studies essays

  1. Strategic Management - CARREFOUR CASE ANALYSIS

    (p. C 74) o Worldwide, Carrefour requested that its stores make less use of plastic in packaging, thereby gaining a reputation as a model in the retailing industry. (p. C 76) o "It was as if the Huns had arrived in Taiwan." (p.

  2. General Electric Strategic Plan

    In order to achieve sustained improvement in margins and returns, teamwork among product management, engineering, and supply chain is a requirement. General Electric has set detailed margin and cycle time goals for the top 30 product lines in the company, representing 75% of the organization's earnings.

  1. Success and Failure at Mrs. Field's Cookies. The secret ingredient in Mrs. Fields ...

    Threats The competition is rising. Instead of competing with a great number of small independent stores, Mrs. Fields now has to compete with national brands such as Famous Amos cookies that were franchising 100 stores within 2 years, in contrast with Mrs.

  2. Strategic Business Plan of Nokia. This strategic report examines thoroughly Nokias current position ...

    Android operation system LOW vProducts like laptops, e-readers, note pads and tablets fulfill similar functions, but they are considered complimentary goods, not substitutes vLandline phones are not a threat since mobile devices are becoming primary tool for communication. In developed countries rate of landline use is decreasing and in transition

  1. Mc Donalds Strategy formulation

    gain customer's loyalty and lower its cost of operation ( Andrew, E; Conrad, L and Rhodri, T;2000). This logical way of training all employees, line managers as well as the screws obviously differentiated McDonald's restaurant from other fast-food restaurants. Training enables worker to gain the skills, knowledge and character necessary for high performance and increase production.

  2. Ryanair Holdings PLC - Strategic Audit

    it does fall out on the proper training and development some staff has to pay for their own training. They arrange interviews by sending out letters to successful applicants where the interview is held at a venue and everyone has to go through a test those who are successful are to be interviewed.

  1. Business Strategy and Economical analysis of Danone

    The marketing and sales department is the one who looks for those changes in consumer tastes, the one who look for new potential products and require it to the Danone's institute.?(13) Service: DANONE has a client telephone service that give responses to consumer doubts and to attend its opinions.

  2. Assignment on Strategies Adopted By Zappos.com MBA2: Strategic Management

    A supplier group exerts even more power over an industry if it has few suppliers, there are no substitute products for the supplier?s product and their product is vital to the industry to survive. These factors are usually out of the control of the company but strategy can change the power of suppliers.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work