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University Degree: Political & International Economics

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  1. This paper will focus on how the inputs and linkages between each key phase of the American t-shirt would change if produced in a true free trade market.

    to the genetically modified (GM) cotton seed. Collectively, these innovations have reduced the need for seasonal labor and significantly increased the overall yield of cotton. The GM technology increased U.S. cotton farmers' income approx. $1 billion. In addition, further USDA research helped transform the cotton farmers' waste products into revenue by recycling and/or reusing in items ranging from cattle feed to corn oil. After all this, the government subsidies kick-in. Based on the above factors, I believe that a free trade market for American t-shirts would not change the activities instituted by the Virtuous Circle as the technological advances minus the government subsidies would still generate enough profits to appropriate amongst the shareholders.

    • Word count: 911
  2. Research topic outline. Transition of Chinas environment policy and its impact on developing economy

    Chinese economy heavily relies upon coal-based industry which is the cheapest but most polluting source of energy, so it is not easy for China to give up main source of their revenues just only for environment. In this research, therefore, I would like to examine whether there is positive or negative economic impact so as to assess the need of strong environment policy in the stage of economic development in China. Literature Review A lot of work is theoretically done to define the role of environmental policy in encouraging or discouraging productivity growth.

    • Word count: 968
  3. Prospects for Mongolian growth. With ample mineral reserves and increasing demand for resource globally, Mongolia will experience rapid economic growth in the next decades. The relative stable and democratic political system dramatically reduces the poli

    Mainly focus on the mining industry, Mongolia has shared large portion of the benefit from the rapidly development from Asia countries, especially steel industry from China and India. Though the commodity price has been volatile recently, the substantial customer and trading partner will provide Mongolia impressive profit from its reserve. As a result of rapidly growth of real GDP, the government current account balance has been improved from -4.6% of GDP in 2009 to expected 6.5% in 2011 and increased foreign exchange reserve to 2.288 billion in 2010*.

    • Word count: 937
  4. The economy is in trouble

    Some of the reasons are oil drops, the issues small business owners are facing, and the inconsistent behavior of our gas prices. The stock market has gone up and down because it is our barometer of economic confidence. The price of oil has dropped to $58.00 a barrel. Xeta shares have increased 26 cents, or 18.98 percent and was the top percentage gainer at one point and time. Devon energy fell $5.97, or 7.84 percent last session. According to the Department of energy, natural gas supplies have increased by 62 billion cubic feet one week!

    • Word count: 761
  5. What role did private investment and initivative play in the development of european imperalism

    So they did not support imperialism until they all began to see the riches that could come there way. Till then it was the private individuals that kick started imperialism. This attitude of the royals would have severely dented the European ambitions to become an imperial power. Luckily for them, ambitious merchants and other individuals all pooled their money together and sent these explorers on expeditions. They paid the expenses, and did not ask for any guarantees about returns as they knew only too well the risk they were taking. Going on an expedition was not an easy task, as the trip would probably take around nine months, with six months being spent on sea.

    • Word count: 698
  6. "...every trade, manufacture, adventure, or concern in the nature of a trade..."[1]

    I accept this as it follows the badges of trade to the letter and takes into account all aspects of the case. It's clear that the transaction was merely an investment and thus would not be taxable as a trade under ITTOIA (schedule D). Later cases present more of a problem. In regards to Ensign Tankers Ltd v Stokes, it was held by the commissioners that there was not a trading transaction taking place. On appeal to the court of appeal this decision was turned around and a trading transaction was held to be taking place.

    • Word count: 884
  7. Dubai's economic strategy is based on a policy to decrease dependence on oil as the major source of income. This is reflected in the increasing development of the trade sector, agricultural reform,

    Etisalat, which is the UAE's provider of telecoms services, offers the latest in technology. A groundbreaker in terms of new products, Etisalat is working to implement third generation mobile telephony networks by 2004. Dubai International Financial Centre Located at the crossroads of the major international capital markets of New York and London (in the West) and Hong Kong (in the East), Dubai is the complementary hub connecting the region with the 24 hour/7 days a week global financial network. The Dubai International Financial Centre was conceived by the Government of Dubai for the benefit of the UAE and the region as a whole.

    • Word count: 849
  8. The theory of constraints (TOC) can help management reduce cycle time. The TOC indicates that the flow of goods through a production process cannot be a faster rate than the slowest bottleneck of the process

    The average output of Department 1 is 50 units per hour. The units are then transferred to Department 2 where they are finished by a robot. The robot can finish a maximum of 100 units per hour, which means the robots are experiencing an idle time. Managing constraints is a process of continuous improvement. Once a constraint is identified in the system, managers will need to figure out how to utilize the constraint to avoid wasting constraint resources. This will have a negative financial impact if the constraint is not detected in the early stages.

    • Word count: 591
  9. Many writers have stressed theinfluence of China's culture on the way that its organizations are managed .

    This historical legacy helps to account for the paradox characterizing China today, that high trust is accorded to group members or those with whom there are special relationships, while others are actively mistrusted. Chinese culture and tradition is therefore deep rooted and before the nineteenth century was largely undisturbed by foreign influence. The majority Han people had managed to absorb foreign invaders, such as the Mongols and the Manchu, into that culture. Their culture is a strong attribute of Chinese society and its members remain very self-conscious of it.

    • Word count: 733
  10. Jebel Ali Free Zone (JAFZ)

    JAFZ is underlined by the ISO 9002 certification and is also the first Free Zone in the world to receive this desirable recognition. Jebel Ali Free Zone was established to balance and contribute to Dubai's growth and development, its legal status is quite separate. Companies functioning there are treated as being "offshore", or outside the UAE for legal purposes. The choice of setting up in Jebel Ali Free Zone is therefore suitable for companies aiming to use Dubai as a regional manufacturing or distribution base and most of their turnover is going to be outside the UAE.

    • Word count: 913
  11. The day we will never forget in our life.

    It seemed like a perfect normal day. Then I went to another class. It was about 8:15 or 8:30. Suddenly a teacher comes from another class and says there is a big crash of airplane on World Trade Center. On September 11th the initial reaction was "oh my god". To be quite honest when the teacher said the news on about the tragedy I would not let me believe the story. But when I came home I turned on the news and saw the footage. Unlike a regular teenager i was glued to the T.V. My thoughts and sympathy are still with the great Country over there even though it has over a year now since the attacks.

    • Word count: 521
  12. For the UK, and Scotland in particular, foreign investment has become an essential source of production, employment and income in both manufacturing and service sectors.

    Also, factors such as this one above affect whom the voting public vote for in general elections. If there are no improvements in employment the public soon lose confidence and want a change of leader. The Government also pay out heavily to local people who cant gain employment, thus they are losing millions of pounds in benefit cash and where there are high unemployment levels, there are also high crime levels as people soon turn to crime to help pay for their next meal or rent. This affects the social area in which people live in. QUESTION 2 Companies like Chunghwa came to Scotland in the mid 1990s, creating several hundred jobs and promising many more.

    • Word count: 715
  13. The European Age of Exploration was governed by three major factors; faith, fate, and fortune.

    Collectively the faith in European exploration was focused and directed to the teachings of the Catholic Church. The main idea of the spread of Catholicism and the word of God around the globe, especially to the New World, attributed to the already tenacious character of the exploration hungry Europeans. The sixteenth century was also a time of persecution and discrimination against religions other than Catholicism. Some European peoples simply left Europe to explore the world to escape the threat of the Catholic institutions. Fate was led by the common geographic location of the European explorative countries.

    • Word count: 485
  14. Explain the advantages of free international trade.

    France, on the other hand, has a rich abundance of skilled labour and capital equipment in the defence industry. Hence, Saudi Arabia has a comparative advantage in the production of oil and France has a comparative advantage in defence equipment production. The theory of comparative advantage would suggest that Saudi Arabia will specialise in producing oil, France in producing defence equipment and that the two countries will trade one product for the other. The second reason for international trade to be advantageous lies on the existence of economies of scale in production. Economies of scale means that more output in a long run industry can be achieved at a lower cost.

    • Word count: 563
  15. What is the likely magnitude of The multiplier

    The net tax rate is t, so the total revenue from net taxes is T=tY. If the net tax rate is 15% of national income, then if Y is increased by one unit of currency, net tax revenue will raise by 15% of this increase. Disposable aggregate income (YD) will thus be: YD=Y-T. As Y-T=Y-tY, YD must equal Y(1-t). Thus, for each unit of income, households only keep (1-t) . If t=15%, households will have access to only 85% of the pre-tax income (1-0.15). As a result, the multiplier becomes: 1/[1-b(1-t)]. This is because the loss of income due to taxation has to be taken account of.

    • Word count: 779
  16. The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974)

    The most significant aspect of his theoretical framework includes four different categories (i.e. core, semi-peripheral, peripheral, and external) that all parts of the world may be put into based on their relative position in the world economic system as well as by their socio-political characteristics. The "core" regions where the greatest benefactors of this system (e.g. England, France, Holland being among the first core regions during the periods discussed). The core tended to be the most flourishing capitalistic countries with strong governing bodies accompanied by a relatively effective military force to defend and protect the stability of their productivity.

    • Word count: 796
  17. Elements of International Business - Competition and competitiveness.

    COMPETITIVENESS There are various definitions of competitiveness but generally it means an aggressive willingness to compete. http://web.ask.com/redir?bpg=http%3a%2f%2fweb.ask.com%2fweb%3fq%3dcompetitiveness%2bdefinition LINKS BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS From the definitions above it is clear that the main difference between competition and competitiveness is that competition is the action already occurring and competitiveness is the mere willingness to compete. This links us to the point of what is a Global competition now and what is desired by the various nations competition to be in the future.

    • Word count: 879
  18. Globalization - discuss the integration of the worlds economy.

    Globalization is changing the world we live in. Causes of Globalization Harris indicates there are three main factors contributing to globalization. The factors include: � The reduction in trade and investment barriers to the post- world war II period � The rapid growth and increase in the size of developing countries' economies � Changes in technology Trade Agreements Originally each nation established its own rules of governing foreign trade. Regulations and tariffs were often the outcome, leading to the tariff wars of the 1930's.

    • Word count: 902
  19. Why are developing countries at a disadvantage?

    (Brett (Parris The OECD Observer; Paris; Oct 2000) Why are developing countries at a disadvantage? Firstly there is a lack of funds and skills among developing countries which are needed in order to maintain a big presence at WTO meetings. While rich countries can afford to fly in teams of trained lawyers, many 3rd world nations lack the resources needed to ensure that they are represented at WTO proceedings. (Consumers International - Aug 1999) Also when they do manage to represent themselves at the meetings they are still very much at a disadvantage.

    • Word count: 624
  20. What is strategy?

    According to Porter, the main problem is failure to distinguish between operational effectiveness and strategy. Porter argues that most companies today compete on the basis of operational effectiveness. However few companies have competed successfully on the basis of operational effectiveness over an extended period, and staying ahead of rivals gets harder every day. The most obvious reason for that is the rapid diffusion of best practices. Competitors quickly can copy the management techniques and therefore this leads to a battle that no one can win. Operational effectiveness is about what's good for everybody and about what every business should be doing.

    • Word count: 662
  21. Discuss Keynes's critique of Say's law.

    Hence, summing over all individuals and (n) goods, we could use the formula as follows: , where are market demand, supply for good i, is the price of good i in terms of an arbitrary numeraire. Obviously, in a barter economy, there cannot be a shortage of demand, which follows Say's law. However, if we want to represent these in a money market, we shall use this formula: , where and are the flow demand and supply of money. is planned additions to money holdings.

    • Word count: 899
  22. Were the seeds of Britain’s later Imperial greatness sown during the reign of Elizabeth I?

    Key to the colonial successes of the age and of subsequent generations was the piracy and privateering (piracy granted by licence as a means to exact revenge for the previous loss of goods to pirates of a foreign nation) which accompanied many of the colonial expeditions. This provided a source of income, which lured sailors to join an expedition and provided a greater incentive to investors to invest in the founding of new colonies. A profit could be made just through a single expedition rather than having to wait years before a colony could begin to make a profit for itself.

    • Word count: 831
  23. Toyota in France.

    Hence the Government reduced obstacles to FDI and used various subsidies, financial aids or tax waivers to attract foreign firms like Toyota. Benefits of Toyota's investment to France France was having a high unemployment rate at that time, and in the city of Valencienne, where the plant was planned to be built, the unemployment rate was as high as 20%. Toyota's investment would not only create 4,000 new jobs in France, but also help balancing the current account by increasing France's export through exporting Toyota's automobiles to other European countries.

    • Word count: 795
  24. Bush advisor turns optimistic on USeconomy

    The economic stimulus has been generated from a recent tax cut which in turn has triggered investment. This fiscal policy seeks to influence the level of economic activity in the economy through the control of taxation and government expenditure. Lindsay believes that there is incentive for new investment due to the effects of the tax cut feeding through into the economy having a positive effect on consumption within the economy.

    • Word count: 355
  25. Outline the Classical / Ricardian theory of International Trade - What do you regard as the main strengths and weaknesses of this theory as an explanation of trade patterns?

    Although this is the only factor countries have differing productivities. This is caused by the different cultures, landscapes, climate and non-human capital it has. Along with capital is the technological advances made in countries. For example if a Developed country (DC) trades with a Less Economically Developed Country (LEDC) its capital will more likely be machine intensive rather then human. However it may be still beneficial for the DC to trade with the LEDC in order to get products that are more labour intensive. Another assumption is that there are constant returns to scale, this is so that varying and increasing amounts of goods may be produced without diminishing effects

    • Word count: 828

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

    "The conclusion that can be brought forth from such evidence is that FDI has both negative and positive advantages in the form of increased employment levels, freer financial market flows, stimulation of local economies and overcoming impediments to trade, equalising a larger economical benefit reaped from FDI, whereas the disadvantages include loss of national sovereignty, the 'race to the bottom, political instability and impacts of Greenfield investment upon the local environment. It is evident, however, that the advantages of FDI far outweigh the limitations that are presented, through the increase in wealth, the spurring of economical development and increased activity in developing nations, essentially, benefiting the globalised financial and business environment. REFERENCE LIST Athukorala, P. C., (2003) Foreign Direct Investment in Crisis and Recovery: Lessons from the 1997 - 1998 Asian Crisis, Australian Economic History Review, June 2003, Vol.41, No.2, pp.197-213 Asiedu, E., and Esfahani, H.S., (2001) Ownership Structure in Foreign Direct Investment Projects, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Nov 2001, Vol.83, No.3, pp.647-662 AtKearney (2004) Current News Release: China and India Jockey for the Top most Attractive Foreign Direct Investment Destination [Online] Available at:"

  • Compare and contrast NPV with IRR as a method of investment appraisal

    "I have come to the conclusion that the NPV method is a better method of appraising investment opportunities than the IRR method. Reason being, although IRR has similar attributes to NPV, it has yet too many problems that could lead to a wrong decision being made, such as ignoring the real world and having multiple IRR's in a situation. Also, when coming to choose between two projects, the NPV method would be better and more reliable discriminator than to use IRR. So in my opinion, I think that the NPV is the best method and therefore it should be the only method used in the investment appraisal. Assignment by: Chi-Man Lam Student ID No.: 02040652 Course Pathway: CATF2"

  • Evaluate the macroeconomic and structural effects of overseas investment during the period 1870-1913.

    "It seems there were notable adverse consequences of excessive overseas investment. However, there is opposition to this view in that keeping investment domestic would have ineffective; for example, McCloskey quoted famously that "by keeping savings at home, the British people could have had two Forth bridges, two bakerloo lines, two London housing stocks, two Port Sunlights". In addition British investment in overseas capital lowered the price of foreign foodstuffs and raw materials. This improved Britain's terms of trade by approximately 0.1% per annum. In conclusion it is difficult to state whether the overall macroeconomic and structural effect of overseas investment over the period 1870-191 was positive or negative."

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