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University Degree: Political & International Economics

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  1. How did the discovery of the New World change Europe and Europeans (discuss in terms of economy, political developments and general world view).

    During that time, the economy at the times was still based on agriculture and land was still thebasis of wealth. The problem was that the agricultural productivity was no longer sufficient to feed the population as well as produce sufficient materials for manufacturing. What caused the situation worse was that the money exchange was based on the amount of gold and silver and the quantity of these metals available for the economy was also decreasing as people traded their gold and silver for Eastern goods.

    • Word count: 556
  2. What nations or economic systems have had the most trouble adapting to the newly evolved "borderless" global economy?

    What nations or economic systems have had the most trouble adapting to the newly evolved "borderless" global economy? According to traditional statistics of measuring economic success, trade flows, exchange rates and productivity improvement has been stagnant in the European economy recently. The new virtually borderless global economy has left the European system with high unemployment, high social welfare costs and a fear of invasion by American business interests. However, the troubles do not end there. Japan has been extremely successful in the new world economy and has given the European policy reason to fear invasion from them as well.

    • Word count: 836
  3. The Swedish Referendum on the Euro.

    When the rest of the EU formed the EMU in 1999 it was decided at the time that Sweden should keep the door open to future participation and that the issue should be put to the people. The Riksdag declared that Sweden should preserve its strong economic position and continue working on euro preparations at national level in order to allow a transition to the euro if approved by the people. Although referenda are advisory rather than binding in Sweden it would be politically unthinkable to put this question to the nation in order to then ignore its response and so it is now likely that the Euro issue will not be pursued again for several years.

    • Word count: 891
  4. This essay seeks to outline and discuss three criticalfactors that made the Capetian dynasty so powerful.

    The capetians certainly used their ties to the Church to their advantage. The kings claimed to possess powers of miracles; the water Robert the Pious (996-1031) had washed his hands with cured a beggar of his blindness. These type of tales created hysteria, fascination and the kings where seen as cult figures. The kings where becoming more beloved by the common people. To them, the Kings were their only protectors. This religious image proved extremely beneficial. Developments such as these strengthened the position of the king's. The second main influence when considering the power of Capetian Kings and definitely a related development throughout this period is the great agricultural production.

    • Word count: 994
  5. Domestic Policy 1930's, and 1980's: A Comparison

    The economy shifted to accommodate the "Have Nots" rather then the "Haves." The running theme of the 30's was Government intervention. A welcome change from Hoover's rugged individualism policies of the 20's. In the 30's FDR created his New Deal, an economic ideal which created several government programs to help the poor. These programs included Welfare, Social Security, and the FDIC among others. Welfare was intended to be a small source of income for the poor during the depression and to get more money circulating in the economy.

    • Word count: 680
  6. Association of Fund Management Companies In Hungary.

    In the past period, the Association placed particular emphasis - due to the quickly developing and changing market environment - on the development of uniform professional standards. In this area, the uniform proposals on matters fundamentally determining the operation of the operation of investment funds were approved. The members utilize the proposals and the supervisory organizations incorporate these in their every day practices. The proposals effect the following areas: * utilizing derivative products at the time the Act on Investment Funds was being developed, these markets were not operating in Hungary thus, when they appeared the secure adaptation thereof became necessary (the funds may use these products for hedging purposes).

    • Word count: 895
  7. Asia Crisis

    Once these investment projectturned out not to be profitable, the firms and the bank that lent them large sums found themselves with a huge amount of foreign debt, mostly in foreign currencies that could not be repaid. The exchangerate crisis that ensured exacerbated the problem as the currency depreciation dramatically increased the real burden in domestic currencies of the debt that was denominated in foreign currencies. A significant faction of the borrowing and lending was not going to finance new investment projects.

    • Word count: 802
  8. The 'Asian Miracle' that became the 'Asian Crisis' 1997.

    Both moves were in response to a suggestion that Thailand's sovereign credit rating might be cut. In March, a run on bank deposits led to an estimated withdrawal of more than $1.2 billion from 91 finance companies. On April 10, Moody's Investors Services did downgrade Thailand's long-term sovereign credit rating, as well as the bond and deposit rating for five Thai banks. Finally, despite statements by the Thai government that it would "fight to the death" to defend the baht, the Bank of Thailand eliminated the baht's official trading band on July 2 and moved to a managed float from a previously de facto US dollar-pegged Thai currency; the baht's value plummeted.

    • Word count: 721
  9. Compare and contrast NPV with IRR as a method of investment appraisal

    Reasons could include: * Interest lost- Any investment opportunity must make you wealthier than the returns that are available from the next-best opportunity. For example, investment in a project, i.e. machineries must have better than those from investing in the bank. * Risk- A higher rate of return is expected from projects where the risk appears as being higher and thus how large the risk premium must be. * Inflation- A general increase in the prices of goods and services in a country, which needs to be compensated to the investors for the loss of interest and purchasing power if the investment is to be made.

    • Word count: 718
  10. The Newly Rise of Furniture Industry.

    Shunde Longjiang Town is known as "hometown of sofa" and the first town of furniture. And there are more than 1,200 furniture factories in it. In addition Longjiang Town is the well-known transaction center of furniture material. For this reason, "Longjiang Model" is generated, which represent the Furniture Industry of Shunde. There are four characteristics of "Longjiang Model": 1. Mainly Labor-Intensive Industry with Collective Ownership Longjiang furniture enterprises have more than 1,200 factories, which account for one fifth of the whole province. There are also over 500 subsidiaries distributed in different areas with nearly 50,000 employees.

    • Word count: 747
  11. Mercantilism and Adam Smith

    By trading goods only for gold or silver countries could build up their treasuries, which in turn funded further colonization. Political economics ensured monarchies of financial concerns, and the success of absolute monarchies. With mercantilism, Britain achieved a favorable balance of trade, which exported more goods than it imported. To achieve this, the government oversaw the production, exchange, consumption of goods and services. To enforce mercantilism, the Navigation Acts were passed in Britain. These acts forced colonies to trade only with Britain. Mercantilism was very profitable for the government, and a few lucky citizens. It was however, detrimental to society.

    • Word count: 713
  12. How Has the Image of the Georgian house changed? (Why).

    With time attitudes have changed. However, there is still no direct mentioning of the slave trade, telling us how we are still not completely open about slavery. Furthermore, this source taken from 'a guide to the Georgian House' mentions negro (black) twice and says how a brief history of Pinney's role in the plantations, again no real evidence supporting Bristol's involvement in the slave trade. This guide was used since 1960-1970 portraying how views were ignored or the same (denial)

    • Word count: 874
  13. "Business Venture Capital".

    In the third quarter of 2002, investors pumped $4.5 billion into 647 entrepreneurial companies, a decrease of 26% from the prior quarter, which saw $6 billion of funding to 838 startups. While IT startups consistently gain venture capitalists' attention, software companies continue to gather the largest amounts of cash despite a 10% drop in funding from the prior quarter. Representing 22% of total investment dollars, 180 software companies got funding, totaling $993 million. "Software is once again leading VC back to its roots, being the largest category in all of 2 but the last 10 years," says Tracy Lefteroff, global managing partner of the venture-capital practice at PricewaterhouseCoopers.

    • Word count: 949
  14. What were the consequences of the Manchuria crisis on the League of Nations?

    By the time any action could be taken against Japan its military machine had already started rolling, making it difficult for any military force to stop it. Once Japan had been determined the aggressor the League should have tried to remove its forces from China under article 10, but the League had no army of its own to deploy against the Japanese. The only countries with the strength to remove Japan were the U.S.A and U.S.S.R and they weren't even members of the League.

    • Word count: 575
  15. Examine the reasons why companies like Samsung might decide to make an investment in the UK.

    Samsung, for example, is based in South Korea, but by building a new electronics plant in the UK, it is investing in a country to which it also exports. It would also be cheaper for Samsung to export their goods from the UK to the rest of Europe, rather than exporting its goods to Europe all the way from South Korea.

    • Word count: 568
  16. Career path sysrems - Motorola provides education assistance, but does not have a plan for using the new talents of employees, particularly non-engineers to the benefit of the company and the individual.

    of people for whom they are paying educational costs. An education that might cost tens of thousands of dollars ought to be an investment in the future of the person that receives it. While Motorola has instituted a policy of requiring individuals to repay Motorola, if they leave the company within one year of the completion of a reimbursed course, that may not be a sufficient deterrent to salvage the investment. After all, investing in an education is more than a money issue. It involves time and energy, and in reality should reap far more than just a dollar amount.

    • Word count: 740
  17. Project management.

    Because of the reasons I've mentioned above, project planning has become a popular method in organising work within organisations in order to achieve and reach their targets. b) Discuss what motivates organisations to undertake projects in the public and private sectors - illustrating with examples of actual projects. Undertaking projects in the public and private sectors helps both parties to benefit from their resources. Public sector can bring modernisation and management of projects for private sectors with using private sectors expertise to help manage project expenditure more efficiently.

    • Word count: 863
  18. A New Slave Trade

    This is what trade is doing. (pause) Trade is now worth four trillion pounds- that is four with twelve zeros- and it's growing. If only people like Mundo could benefit. Imagine the huge impact on their lives. They could have some food and water. But with the trade rules, surely money is fairly shared out.

    • Word count: 526
  19. A Description of The Carajas Project

    A lot of the investment came from outside of Brazil. The 900km railway alone cost $2.5 billion, without the cost of all the mines and equipment needed for mining, the resources needed to sustain huge numbers of workers, in otherwise inhabited forests. The US and Japan loaned $2.5 billion to Brazil, the World Bank loaned $300 million and the ECSC (European coal and steel community) loaned $600 million. Brazil is expected to benefit itself, the economy and its people.

    • Word count: 436
  20. Economics: Downgrading of the US Credit Rating

    The investor who is making a scan on the investment horizon would analyst not only the target company or security but also other potential investment opportunities in the market. This credit rating a companies, however, more often is used on private sector entities that issue debt instruments like bonds and equity shares. The private investors on privately issued debt instruments and equity shares put a heavy weight on the ratings issued by the three credit raters. Seldom if ever do they use the ratings on government bonds, most particularly on the United States bonds issued by the government.

    • Word count: 722
  21. Summary of "'Global Economic Governance after the Crisis: The G2, the G20, and Global Imbalances.' Bank of Korea Working Paper, 2011

    View 1: the global crisis delivered a ?knockout? blow to an already weak system, and that instead of the G7 the G20 would be able to manage the government better View 2: rather than have a G7, it assumes we are moving toward a G2, being China and the US. Some project China to be a hegemon in the making which will one day over-power the US View 3: As Hank Paulson argues, ?the strength of the relationship between the US and China will be critical to the functioning of the G20 and global cooperation? (Walter)

    • Word count: 624

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