• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

University Degree: Political & International Economics

Browse by

Currently browsing by:

Submitted within:
last 12 months (1)

Meet our team of inspirational teachers

find out about the team

Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents

  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  1. To what extent was the financial crisis a consequence of government failure to regulate markets?

    This then lead to a subprime mortgage crisis and many consumers became worried about their finances. They decided to take out their money from the banks for fear the banks could go under. This resulted in many banks needing government assistance, as they did not have the finance to run themselves. The United Kingdom and United States of America operates in what is known as 'free market economies'. There is very little government intervention in free market economies which may explain why these countries are currently in a financial crisis. Many economists disagree with the definition of a free market.

    • Word count: 2952
  2. Free essay

    Discuss the role of Chinas Communist Party in Chinas economic reform and growth post-1978

    It is the world's second largest economy by both nominal GDP and purchasing power parity (PPP) (Nypost: 2010) and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. After discussing China's communist historical background and its need for reform and growth, this essay will go in depth on the four major economic institutions that needed to be reformed in order for China to become a market economy. It will then go briefly into China joining the WTO, and so concluding with China's economic situation at present. Since the establishment of the Communist regime in 1949, Chinese economic policies and institutes have undergone a number of excessive modifications.

    • Word count: 2645
  3. Monetizing carbon credits - Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. Greenhouse gas emissions are capped and then markets are used to allocate the emissions among the group of regulated sources. The goal is to allow market mechan

    Once approved, these units are termed Certified Emission Reductions, or CERs. The Protocol allows these projects to be constructed and credited in advance of the Kyoto trading period. The Kyoto Protocol : The protocol is an international agreement linked to the UNFCCC that sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the EC for reducing GHG emissions. These targets amount to an average 5 per cent reduction from 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. The protocol was adopted in 1997 and entered into force in February 2005. It provides for three mechanisms that enable countries or operators in developed countries to acquire greenhouse gas reduction credit.

    • Word count: 2683
  4. The implications of industrial disputes in China in the first half of 2010

    Private businesses and capitalism did not exist. The People's Republic of China was self-closed throughout its first three decades. To propel the country towards a modern industrialized communist society, Mao Zedong instituted the Great Leap Forward in 1958 which concerned the development of agriculture and industry. He wanted China to compete with the USA, but his plan failed. In 1978, Deng Xiaoping established a Chinese economic reform which aimed to transform China's stagnant, impoverished planned economy into a market economy capable of generating strong economic growth. This reform was a success and has permitted China to become one of the most important countries in the world.

    • Word count: 2988
  5. To what extent do you consider privatization of former state owned enterprises as a critical component to any economic reform of a formerly centrally designed and managed economy, such as India and China?. Which country, India or China, has had a more dif

    Low growth rates were the highlight of the period. India was probably more affected by the command economy system because it was stricter in its observance as compared to China which had some form of civil involvements in agriculture in the early 1960s. Under the command economy, all industries were to be centrally planned, and their run was marked with inefficiency, non profitability and often supply surpluses and bottlenecks which were not desirable. It was a matter of time after realizing these affects that both countries adopted economic reforms to put things right.

    • Word count: 2510
  6. Why do the Japanese firms prefer the voluntary export restrains (VERs) to the tariffs?

    Through the years this exchange process had integrated and interdependent the nations and organizations who are involved. Nowadays nations are globalizing, governments and businesses are investing in their own nations and opening their market for foreign investments. Globalization had a large impact on people lives because new opportunities where created along with the risks. Globalization has also a cultural and social dimension; they can be influence trough knowledge, ideas and opportunities. Globalization has also a positive side for business it can lead to globalized customers and that leads to global service.

    • Word count: 2243
  7. Is Trade Liberalisation a Friend or Foe of Australia ?

    The major concerns address unemployment caused by tariffs on imported goods and insufficient protection for the local producers. This paper will aim to find out the reasons why those "groups" are against protectionism. It will also present the reasons for decline in protectionism, specifically in the manufacturing industry since it has been the backbone of the Australian economy. Free trade or protectionist policies are both likely to have pros and cons, therefore liberalization of the economy will also be studied in this paper.

    • Word count: 2432
  8. Discuss the main costs and benefits of Monetary Union in the European Union.

    When the EU was founded in 1957, the Member States concentrated on building a 'common market' for trade. However, over time it became clear that closer economic and monetary co-operation was needed for the internal market to develop and flourish further, and for the whole European economy to perform better, bringing more jobs and greater prosperity for Europeans. In 1991, the Member States approved the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty), deciding that Europe would have a strong and stable currency for the 21stcentury.

    • Word count: 2786
  9. Analysis the positive and negative impact on

    The world imports increased to 13.8 trillion US dollars in 1996 from 10.9 trillion US dollars in 1978, representing an annual average growth of 15.2%. In spite of rapid advancement of productive forces and science and technology worldwide, as countries become increasingly closer in their relations and the charges and commission rates for trans-border transactions and capital transfer, their economic interdependence and mutual support of relative advantages have grown all the more obvious. They are attached to one another and make into a whole.

    • Word count: 2229
  10. Critically analyse the term development and assess its importance as a policy goal. How should development be defined? Can it be measured or assessed with any degree of operational accuracy?

    Dudley Seers was one of the proponents of this view. He stated that a growing economy contributed to development only if it reduced poverty, inequality and unemployment. David Simon gives the following definition to development "a broad, multifaceted process whereby quality of life and sense of fulfilment are enhanced". This definition clearly includes qualitative aspects as well through terms like "quality of life" and "sense of fulfilment". Considering that the term development included qualitative aspects too, there were attempts to find more appropriate measurements like the Human Development Index (HDI), produced by the United Nations Development Program.

    • Word count: 2055
  11. Causes of poverty - examining the problems of former colonies and possible solutions.

    Further, it is also argued that these poor nations need to focus more on the neo-liberal policies in stead of guarding the vested interests. World disparities: At the global level, there is a vast disparity existing between rich and poor countries. For instance, the World Development Report, 1980 reports that in 1950 the average per captia income of low-income countries was $ 164 (at 1980 US$), whereas that of developed or rich countries was $ 3,841. The difference in the income was $3,.677.

    • Word count: 2602
  12. Labor Economics of Immigration. In neoclassical economics migration is considered a disequilibrium that ends once equilibrium is reached again. Lewis (1954) said that the big differentials in wages, employment and returns to capital between countries lead

    Four decades later, it dramatically rose to 177 million which is 2.9% of the whole population. The descriptive statistics on the proportion of international migrants according to destination region showed that from 1960 to 2005 migrants prefered to settle in developed countries (EEA 2006). This scenario could give us a notion that the richer the country is, the more enticing it is to the immigrants. Some recent researchers hypothesized that the more generous the welfare system is the more the immigrants are attracted.

    • Word count: 2745
  13. Child Labor and Child abuse.

    it is believed that child abuse in India has not received adequate attention primarily because of a general lack of sensitivity to the issue.However definitions of child abuse in India need to be operationalized.The Indian view holds the child as parental property, subject to discipline as parents find appropriate. The child maltreatment is found in13 areas: cleanliness, clothing, drugs/alcohol, educational neglect, emotional neglect, fostering delinquency, housing, medical neglect, nutrition, parental sexual norms, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and supervision.Maltreatment of children in India was identified as 1)

    • Word count: 2792
  14. Was the Great Depression successfully overcome in Australia by 1930?

    With the outbreak of war in 1914, and the coming of the industrialized era, Australia went through a state of cyclical change throughout the World War I period and after. The outbreak of war stimulated large-scale growth of industry in Australia in order to cope with the demands of the soldiers fighting abroad. Whilst the Agricultural industry remained the backbone of the Australian export market, there was a sudden growth in manufacturing industry in Australia, producing wartime goods such as clothing, boots & blankets.

    • Word count: 2190
  15. Hard Budget Constraints

    is propping up the failing enterprises, will want to increase even more the profits of their already profitable enterprises whereby leading to the increase of their own bonuses. The governments had several temptations for bailing out state enterprises, from political repercussions of a large firm going bankrupt and laying off hundreds of thousands of jobs, to the negative externalities (e.g. supply problems) caused by a large firm going out of business and cancelling all of its order. The concept of the HBC is best explained in the terms of the SBC, which accounts for the lengthy discussion above, so in effect HBC is the exact opposite of the SBC5.

    • Word count: 2163
  16. Pharma industry in Latin America

    2000 2007 1990- 2000 2006- 2007 2000 2007 1998 2007 1998 2007 2000 2007 Male Female Male Female U.S. 283,230 301,621 1.1 1.0 12.4 12.6 12.9 15.6 44.8 45.7 73.9 79.5 75.5 81.3 Argentina 37,032 38,438 1.3 0.9 9.8 9.9 8.1 9.7 55 45 70.2 77.8 71.9 79.4 Brazil 170,406 191,791 1.4 1.3 5.4 6.3 6.9 7.7 48.2 44.9 64.5 71.9 69.2 76.4 Mexico 98,872 106,535 1.7 1.1 5.2 6.1 5.3 6.6 48 45.4 71 76.2 72.6 77.8 * Because there were no data for 60+ group for year 2007, I chanced the data for year 2000 to 65+ group (the core message remains the same)

    • Word count: 2311
  17. When is corruption morally corrupt?

    1Bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion (�494bn). Bribing generally takes place with government officials, because they have the main power and for some big amount of money they can do a favour by taking bribe. The person who is taking bribe and the one who is giving, both are the corrupt. For example if a person riding a motorcycle and caught by traffic for over-speeding, then he can give bribe to traffic police, for not taking any action against him. So in this example both the parties are corrupt and both will have to be punished either giving or taking bribe.

    • Word count: 2165
  18. Rent Control

    The incentives included tax breaks on construction, and lump sum cash transfers from the government to the developer. After 1975 the development of sky rise buildings and apartments quickly declined. Here is a chart of Ontario's apartment unit construction going back 5 years prior to the Rent Control Act;1 The steep decline in sky rise buildings and apartments is a combination of the rent Control Act that government implemented in 1975, and because the government decided to eliminate most cash transfers builders received for the construction of sky rise buildings. In November of 1975 the Canadian government made it official and enacted the Residential Tenancies Act, this was the same as the Rent Control Act only they decided to change the name.

    • Word count: 2474
  19. India, Australia and Indonesia - Labour Reforms

    Snapshot of Australian and Indian Economies. The following table compares India and Australia on some important points like the population, population growth and density, inflation, unemployment and so on. CATEGORY AUSTRALIA INDIA Population (July 2008 est.) 21,007,310 1,147,995,904 Population Growth Rate (2008 est.) 1.221 % 1.578 % Population Density 2.73 349.19 Annual Inflation Rate (2007 est.) 2.3 % 6.4 % Unemployment Rate (2007 est.) 4.4 % 7.2 % Real GDP Growth Rate (2007 est.) 3.9 % 9.2 % Export (Percentage of Real GDP, 2007 est.)

    • Word count: 2728
  20. Aylesbury pressing case

    * Introduction of SPC after blanking and pressing for quality control by getting samples. * Supplier development programme which improved the supplier performance in quality, delivery, speed, responsiveness. * Some of the processes are really straight forward and they don't seem to have any problem in such as: providing raw materials, final assembly and painting. Weaknesses It seems that there are some missing pieces in Aylesbury pressing operations and process management. The drawbacks are as follow: * Time is an issue. The changeover time of blanking and pressing is relatively high. Some machines are more or less full-time dedicated which causes some processes to work in just %80 of their rated speed.

    • Word count: 2950
  21. "Missing women" A. Sen

    Not all Asian countries have this problem and few if any Western countries are free of gender biases completely. Economic development explains the problem as the consequence of underdevelopment and poverty. The fact that only poor countries experience this problem is true, but not all poor counties have it. Moreover, "the fact that sex ratios have been falling as aggregate income has been rising seems inconsistent with a purely economic view of missing women" (Chamarbagwala & Ranger, 2006). The explanation of women deficit, proposed by Oster (2005), is based on medical findings which suggests that "women infected with the Hepatitis B virus tend to give birth to fewer girls than healthy women, with the latter attributing up to 20% of India's missing girls to the virus" (Klassen & Wink, 2003).

    • Word count: 2011
  22. What are the major changes to the foreign trade/ investment structure of Japan after the mid- 1980s? What is the policy response of Japan to the regional cooperation in the East Asia?

    In spite of Japan's full participation in multilateral tariff reductions, it frequently has been involved in contentious trade disputes with the United States and, to a certain extent, with Europe as well. In 1980, Japan relaxed most controls on inward direct investment. Regardless of these major liberalisations of Japan's trade policy, it has often been involved in trade friction with the United States. The reason for this is that growth of Japan's exports provoked protectionist political pressure by import-competing American industries.

    • Word count: 2458
  23. Write an essay on the impact of China's accession to the WTO on Investment in China, taking into account China's investment laws and regulations.

    In addition, China is also in an attempt to enact new legislation in case of absence of laws or regulations for the WTO purposes, with a view to effectively fulfilling its WTO obligations and commitments.3 China's accession to WTO has carried out an encouraging message to the world that now as a member of the WTO, China is bound by WTO rules and therefore its potential for attracting foreign investment is rising rapidly. Furthermore, its WTO membership also helps the country to assure and establish a better and safer investment environment for the country and investors.

    • Word count: 2085
  24. Globalization entails the increased dependency of developing countries on the West. Discuss

    Is it true that 'the west respects Japan, Hong Kong, China and Taiwan today because these countries did not wait for the advice of the white many to jump into their own style of modernity?' Diawara (1998) One can see that globalization has brought about a degree of exploitation. Multinational companies exploit workers in poor countries by paying lower wages that they would pay in their home countries thus reducing the costs of production; multinational corporations destroy the environments of smaller, poorer countries; multinational corporations with all their power threaten the sovereignty of smaller nations.

    • Word count: 2221
  25. The role of Trade in British Industrialisation

    Gradually though, a liberalisation of trade took place towards the end of the eighteenth century whereby import duties were cut and new trade agreements were negotiated. It was really then only at the beginning of the nineteenth century that British overseas trade began to expand. Period Imports Exports Re-exports 1784-1786 15.7 11.4 4.5 1794-1796 21.9 17.5 11.8 1804-1806 28.2 25.4 11.4 1814-1816 33.6 39.0 17.3 1824-1826 45.4 48.5 11.4 1834-1836 50.4 78.4 12.2 1844-1846 76.6 132.4 15.6 1854-1856 120.8 232.9 31.6 Table 1: Values of Overseas Trade (G.B Official values, annual averages, million �), R.

    • Word count: 2726

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

    "The conclusion that can be brought forth from such evidence is that FDI has both negative and positive advantages in the form of increased employment levels, freer financial market flows, stimulation of local economies and overcoming impediments to trade, equalising a larger economical benefit reaped from FDI, whereas the disadvantages include loss of national sovereignty, the 'race to the bottom, political instability and impacts of Greenfield investment upon the local environment. It is evident, however, that the advantages of FDI far outweigh the limitations that are presented, through the increase in wealth, the spurring of economical development and increased activity in developing nations, essentially, benefiting the globalised financial and business environment. REFERENCE LIST Athukorala, P. C., (2003) Foreign Direct Investment in Crisis and Recovery: Lessons from the 1997 - 1998 Asian Crisis, Australian Economic History Review, June 2003, Vol.41, No.2, pp.197-213 Asiedu, E., and Esfahani, H.S., (2001) Ownership Structure in Foreign Direct Investment Projects, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Nov 2001, Vol.83, No.3, pp.647-662 AtKearney (2004) Current News Release: China and India Jockey for the Top most Attractive Foreign Direct Investment Destination [Online] Available at:"

  • Compare and contrast NPV with IRR as a method of investment appraisal

    "I have come to the conclusion that the NPV method is a better method of appraising investment opportunities than the IRR method. Reason being, although IRR has similar attributes to NPV, it has yet too many problems that could lead to a wrong decision being made, such as ignoring the real world and having multiple IRR's in a situation. Also, when coming to choose between two projects, the NPV method would be better and more reliable discriminator than to use IRR. So in my opinion, I think that the NPV is the best method and therefore it should be the only method used in the investment appraisal. Assignment by: Chi-Man Lam Student ID No.: 02040652 Course Pathway: CATF2"

  • Evaluate the macroeconomic and structural effects of overseas investment during the period 1870-1913.

    "It seems there were notable adverse consequences of excessive overseas investment. However, there is opposition to this view in that keeping investment domestic would have ineffective; for example, McCloskey quoted famously that "by keeping savings at home, the British people could have had two Forth bridges, two bakerloo lines, two London housing stocks, two Port Sunlights". In addition British investment in overseas capital lowered the price of foreign foodstuffs and raw materials. This improved Britain's terms of trade by approximately 0.1% per annum. In conclusion it is difficult to state whether the overall macroeconomic and structural effect of overseas investment over the period 1870-191 was positive or negative."

Marked by a teacher

This document has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the document.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the document page.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student document reviewing squad. Read the full review under the document preview on this page.