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University Degree: Political & International Economics
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Background to carry out trading with the European Union Market Forces First of all, the most important factor to analyze from the European Union's point of view is connected to market forces. Ideally, demand and supply should determine all market movements, however, in Turkey, this is not exactly the case. In theory, the government of Turkey has declared its independence from regulatory agencies, but in practice, there are still some areas where prices are set. A good example to demonstrate this is the fact that the government did not allow global changes affect the prices and consumption level of energy in Turkey before the Parliamentary elections last year.
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it is believed that child abuse in India has not received adequate attention primarily because of a general lack of sensitivity to the issue.However definitions of child abuse in India need to be operationalized.The Indian view holds the child as parental property, subject to discipline as parents find appropriate. The child maltreatment is found in13 areas: cleanliness, clothing, drugs/alcohol, educational neglect, emotional neglect, fostering delinquency, housing, medical neglect, nutrition, parental sexual norms, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and supervision.Maltreatment of children in India was identified as 1)
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With the outbreak of war in 1914, and the coming of the industrialized era, Australia went through a state of cyclical change throughout the World War I period and after. The outbreak of war stimulated large-scale growth of industry in Australia in order to cope with the demands of the soldiers fighting abroad. Whilst the Agricultural industry remained the backbone of the Australian export market, there was a sudden growth in manufacturing industry in Australia, producing wartime goods such as clothing, boots & blankets.
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is propping up the failing enterprises, will want to increase even more the profits of their already profitable enterprises whereby leading to the increase of their own bonuses. The governments had several temptations for bailing out state enterprises, from political repercussions of a large firm going bankrupt and laying off hundreds of thousands of jobs, to the negative externalities (e.g. supply problems) caused by a large firm going out of business and cancelling all of its order. The concept of the HBC is best explained in the terms of the SBC, which accounts for the lengthy discussion above, so in effect HBC is the exact opposite of the SBC5.
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This brutal shock showed that there were serious problems in regulatory system in financial industry. The crisis quickly spread into real economy. It was not easy for firms to spend money on factories, equipment and acquisitions because of tight credits. Also, consumers tried to decrease their purchase. And this led to sharp falls in revenue of companies. In the end, the financial shocks shook the global economy overall. In the face of global economic recession, many corporate initiated to reduce foreign direct investment because of tighter credit conditions and falling corporate profits. According estimate by UNCTAD, world FDI flows are expected to have declined in 2008 by 21 percent.
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The benefits, since then, could become whatever Enron wanted them to be, regardless of the revenue generated. Thus, the door was left open to manipulation, and thus managed to inflate profits, even getting actual losses. This happened, for example, when Enron tried to join into the broadband market, teaming up with Blockbuster to sell movies "� la carte" on the Internet . The shares of Enron multiplied their value, but the technology did not work. But the system of valuation of shares allowed them to predict and account revenues, and keep millions, supposed to be generated by this Business.
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However, this does not mean that they did not encounter several problems. For instance, the British encountered problems of "race, language, and caste distinctions.2" Moreover, "Indian industrial efficiency was hampered by the British administration's neglect of technical education. 3" Consequently this led to diseconomies of scale as long run average cost of production increased as output decreased. Managing became challenging as, "maintaining...completely unskilled group[s] who had to bribe the jobbers to get and retain their jobs4" In contrast to India, China was hit by the "era of free trade imperialism.5" The British gained tremendously from the unequal treaties that enforced low tariffs, the legalization of opium, extra territorial rights, the freedom to travel within inland China, and the opening of 92 ports.
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Today Russia is independent country, but it steal does not have many contacts with other countries from economical point of view. Accession to the WTO is critical for Russia and its political leadership. Also by the membership of WTO Russia can improve its economical and business environment but it may have to make some compromises related to free trade. President Vladimir Putin has made it a top priority to enter the WTO. The main purpose of our project is to discuss positive and negative consequences for Russia that might result from entering the WTO, will they gain much by entering this organization or they will not.
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The same parameters shall be compared with other countries on a random basis to strengthen the argument. Stepping Stones - India's colonial experience framed a solid background which reinforced the belief that the free trade regime during that period was biased against Indian interests and that it cannot be relied upon to generate required growth and reduce poverty. This made India cringe in to a cocoon that was rooted in the belief that self reliance is the only way to move ahead without realizing that the country had little to be self dependent because that character was somewhat lost due to ages of foreign rule.
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Why do some organisations become multinational enterprises instead of exporting from their home country? Do the advantages of multinational production outweigh the disadvantages?
John Dunning's eclectic paradigm sets out a framework to show why multinationals exist. First of all there are 'firm-specific advantages', these are advantages to the business which only they possess. These can include the use of secret technology within the firm, for example Dyson vacuums, or the use of highly regarded and developed brand names, such as Coca Cola, which is known to be one of the most recognizable phrases in the world. Other firm-specific advantages can include more effective management techniques, which will in turn have a positive effect on the productivity of the workforce; also a business may have marketing advantages over other firms if they focus a lot of skill towards highly effective advertising and promotional work.
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Trade has expanded over the years because nations have import goods which are not available at home and this expansion has result several issues, including technological diffusion, increased range of consumer choice, reduction in the costs inputs, and other benefits (Krugman, 1997) (International Economics Theory and Policy, Seventh edition). After GATT operated for almost five decades, it has been converted into World Trade Organization (WTO). As the successor of GATT, WTO continued GATT's responsibility to deal with the rules of trade among countries around the world which including negotiate and implement trade agreements that agreed and signed by nations that support WTO.
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Viner and R. Lipsey. Viner in particular made distinction on trade creation and trade diversion. Trade creation involves a shift from higher cost domestic production to lower cost PTA country due to the shift the price paid by consumer is driven down. Trade diversion occurs when country shift its import from lower cost outside 'club' country to higher cost PTA member (El-Agraa, 1994, Pautola -Mol, 2003 ) According to Baldwin new regionalism now usually involves small countries with the link with a large countries or countries located geographically close to them. In addition regional integration involves deep integration but confers relatively minor advantages.
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Tax Academic commentators agree that the explosion of FDI in recent years would never have materialised without the government's commitment to a low corporate tax regime.4 At 12.5% for all corporate trading profits, significantly below that of the E.U. and U.S.5, companies have cited this (as opposed to subsidies which can have the effect of making a bad investment look good) as the primary reason for choosing Ireland. It has stimulated transfer pricing among these FDI companies in Ireland6, thus benefiting Irish tax revenues by large multinationals locating large chunks of their substantial profits in the country.7 It is clear
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Some of the reasons are oil drops, the issues small business owners are facing, and the inconsistent behavior of our gas prices. The stock market has gone up and down because it is our barometer of economic confidence. The price of oil has dropped to $58.00 a barrel. Xeta shares have increased 26 cents, or 18.98 percent and was the top percentage gainer at one point and time. Devon energy fell $5.97, or 7.84 percent last session. According to the Department of energy, natural gas supplies have increased by 62 billion cubic feet one week!
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2000 2007 1990- 2000 2006- 2007 2000 2007 1998 2007 1998 2007 2000 2007 Male Female Male Female U.S. 283,230 301,621 1.1 1.0 12.4 12.6 12.9 15.6 44.8 45.7 73.9 79.5 75.5 81.3 Argentina 37,032 38,438 1.3 0.9 9.8 9.9 8.1 9.7 55 45 70.2 77.8 71.9 79.4 Brazil 170,406 191,791 1.4 1.3 5.4 6.3 6.9 7.7 48.2 44.9 64.5 71.9 69.2 76.4 Mexico 98,872 106,535 1.7 1.1 5.2 6.1 5.3 6.6 48 45.4 71 76.2 72.6 77.8 * Because there were no data for 60+ group for year 2007, I chanced the data for year 2000 to 65+ group (the core message remains the same)
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The UK enjoys stable growth from a much greater base. In 2005, the governments with the highest public deficit figures were those of Hungary (6.1% of GDP - 5.4% in 2004), Portugal (6.0% - 3.2% in 2004), Greece (4.5% - 6.9% in 2004), Italy (4.1% - 3.4% in 2004), Britain (3.6% - 3.3% in 2004), Germany (3.3% - 3.7% in 2004) and Malta (3.3% - 5.1% in 2004). Meanwhile, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Spain and Sweden registered a government surplus in 2005. The Stability and Growth Pact limits public deficits to 3% of GDP.
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1Bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion (�494bn). Bribing generally takes place with government officials, because they have the main power and for some big amount of money they can do a favour by taking bribe. The person who is taking bribe and the one who is giving, both are the corrupt. For example if a person riding a motorcycle and caught by traffic for over-speeding, then he can give bribe to traffic police, for not taking any action against him. So in this example both the parties are corrupt and both will have to be punished either giving or taking bribe.
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The incentives included tax breaks on construction, and lump sum cash transfers from the government to the developer. After 1975 the development of sky rise buildings and apartments quickly declined. Here is a chart of Ontario's apartment unit construction going back 5 years prior to the Rent Control Act;1 The steep decline in sky rise buildings and apartments is a combination of the rent Control Act that government implemented in 1975, and because the government decided to eliminate most cash transfers builders received for the construction of sky rise buildings. In November of 1975 the Canadian government made it official and enacted the Residential Tenancies Act, this was the same as the Rent Control Act only they decided to change the name.
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China-Africa friendship has laid a solid foundation for bilateral investment cooperation; Second, Chinese government encourage domestic companies to invest on Africa. Through participation and implementation of the projects from Chinese government and international aid organizations, Chinese companies are more known to African countries and on the other hand, they gain a better understanding of political and economic situation, cultural, and historical background of Africa. In recent years, Chinese companies, with strength in technology, equipment and capital funding and through economic cooperation, become experienced in foreign investment; Third, Chinese companies are provided with a large number of investment opportunities as the
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"Every tonne we avoid emitting will reduce the risk of global warming getting worse." (www.innocentdrinks.co.uk) In 2004 Innocent became the biggest smoothie brand in the UK with 41% of the market share, with PJs being their closet rivals with 28% of he market share. It is important for Innocent to consider its market structure because it will influence the sort of competition Innocent will have to compete with. The market structure can be defined and sorted into four main categories.
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This agreement was and still is, very controversial because of numerous reasons. To begin with it was the first merger between three nations with such a big difference in development�. Mexico is by far, the poorest and the less developed country in this agreement. More than half of al Mexican citizens are living in poverty and one fifth is living in extreme poverty4 versus 12% people blow poverty line in the United States and 15% in Canada (note: Canada's figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), it does not have an official poverty line)5 An other reason is that the NAFTA had also effect on the 'democratic freedom' of the citizens in the member states.
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Both will gain. Comparative advantage an ability of a country to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than some other country. In a two-good, two country model, one country may have an absolute advantage in both goods, but still have a comparative advantage in one that is to say that for which its absolute advantage was greatest or its absolute disadvantage least. The gains from trade based on comparative advantage. Before trade unless markets are very imperfect, the prices of the two goods are likely to reflect their opportunity costs.
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Snapshot of Australian and Indian Economies. The following table compares India and Australia on some important points like the population, population growth and density, inflation, unemployment and so on. CATEGORY AUSTRALIA INDIA Population (July 2008 est.) 21,007,310 1,147,995,904 Population Growth Rate (2008 est.) 1.221 % 1.578 % Population Density 2.73 349.19 Annual Inflation Rate (2007 est.) 2.3 % 6.4 % Unemployment Rate (2007 est.) 4.4 % 7.2 % Real GDP Growth Rate (2007 est.) 3.9 % 9.2 % Export (Percentage of Real GDP, 2007 est.)
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* Introduction of SPC after blanking and pressing for quality control by getting samples. * Supplier development programme which improved the supplier performance in quality, delivery, speed, responsiveness. * Some of the processes are really straight forward and they don't seem to have any problem in such as: providing raw materials, final assembly and painting. Weaknesses It seems that there are some missing pieces in Aylesbury pressing operations and process management. The drawbacks are as follow: * Time is an issue. The changeover time of blanking and pressing is relatively high. Some machines are more or less full-time dedicated which causes some processes to work in just %80 of their rated speed.
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With such superior service, he seems to suggest, why won't the world beat a path to his door to buy everything from toasters to trumpets and tennis rackets?" (NY Times 2005) 4.0 E BUSINESS SYSTEM OF AMAZON "A system is a set of interrelated components working together to achieve a collective goal." (Bocji 2003) (Alter 2002a) defines a system as "business processes using computer and communication technologies and computerised data" An E-Business System (EBS) is a system which performs and co-ordinates business processes using computer and communication technologies and computerised data.
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