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University Degree: Political & International Economics

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  1. UK Retail Industry environmental scanning

    Heavy price reductions resulted in bankruptcy of all the SME operators in the locality where Walmart opened. This is one of the major areas where Walmart faces political force. However, the retail giant, owing to its gigantism, overcomes the force with internal political relationship. ECONOMIC - This is one of the major advantges it has over its competetion. Economies of large scale operations help Walmart in selling products at highly discounted prices resulting in competition elimination. TECHNOLOGY Wal-Mart has used technology to the optimum limit.

    • Word count: 4926
  2. Economic Development of China

    They are set full steam ahead for what seems to be the fastest growing economy of the 21st century and pressure is upon them to fix all their problems. Historically, China had been a leading country, impressing the world with its talents in various academic fields such as sciences and the arts. They hit a road bump in the 19th century as the country was in great turmoil due to war and famine; they suffered defeat and humiliation by such countries as Japan, Russia and Britain.

    • Word count: 4006
  3. Corporate Governance in Slovenia

    Most recently there has been a growing trend in Slovenia of shareholders consolidating their positions3 with a view of a possible takeover in the key blue-chip companies such as, MERCATOR4, and PIVOVARNA LA�KO5 where the fund INFOND owns 25% and 24.91% respectively. Laws and regulations The Slovenian company law is generally tied to the general inter-EU legislations6, such as Securities Market Act (1999), Mergers and Acquisition Act (1997), the Dematerialized Act (1997) and the new Investment Funds Act (2002). The corporate regulations7 mean that the companies are split into two groups, the limited liability companies (d.o.o)

    • Word count: 1391
  4. The Economic Benifits of a Professional Military

    The U.S. has imposed drafts on its able bodied men since the 1800's. In 1863, the first conscription act in United States history was passed, authorizing the President to draft citizens between the ages of 18 and 35. Included in the act was a provision that allowed draftees to either pay $300 or supply a substitute to gain exemption. This touched off numerous draft riots, most notably in New York City. Conscription was imposed again in 1917 after the U.S. entered WWI and with WWII a looming prospect, the first peacetime conscription came into existence with the introduction of the Selective Service Act of 1940.

    • Word count: 3109
  5. Sustainailty for Tesco

    * Responsible lobbying * International and external evaluation of social and environmental performance Tesco and need to work on this to achieve this stage. Tesco is currently at the stage mention above because it provides a lot of detail about the financial aspects of the business and also it respect that stakeholders are important and must be listen to. "We are committed to maintaining a good dialogue with shareholders through proactively organising meetings and presentations, as well as responding to a wide range of enquiries.

    • Word count: 3599
  6. Collapse of Central Planning

    There are several reasons that this system is unsustainable and therefore collapsed as it did. The main reason for which is the massive inefficiency that occur as a result of its implementation. This leads to wastage and therefore contradicts the basic economic problem of scarcity facing every economy. Scarcity as a definition is a population choosing between its needs and its wants, and in doing so making the most efficient usage of the scarce resources available. Inefficiency has two main forms Productive inefficiency and allocative inefficiency. Productive inefficiency is when firms in the economy do not produce at their lowest possible cost.

    • Word count: 1630
  7. "The Earth provides enough for every man's needs but not every man's greed" (Mahatma Gandi). Expand on this statement and explain the main causes of environmental degradation.

    such as the US and China, owns most of the production assets in the country and contribute to a great proportion of GDP in these countries. This therefore means, their influence on decision-making is very high and benefits from these companies is guaranteed to be taken into account. As a result of this, these firms are driven to seek individual benefits even at the expense of the environment and the human nature of the decision makers are also driven to seek individual benefits even at the expense of the environment.

    • Word count: 1490
  8. What do economists mean by globalisation? Critically examine the possible effects of globalisation on the global economic inequality.

    This would also mean government's could lose control over what goes in and out of the economy, in terms of individual imports and exports (International sales transactions through the internet). The abandonment of exchange controls has also brought rise to an unequal demand of currencies. Everywhere you go, more people demand for Dollars, Pounds, Euro and Yen than any other currency. In some countries, house prices are only valued in Dollars instead of the true currency of the country. This further leads to a decrease in national pride of that country.

    • Word count: 1850
  9. The Economic Impact of Health

    Poverty is determined by income, access to education and health services and exposure to political insecurity. In the dimension of remote health in developing countries, poverty is often experienced as the inability to purchase or access basic health services and public health infrastructure. Persistent low incomes of rural dwellers limit purchasing power, particularly for catastrophic life events such as injury or obstetric emergency. Based on statistics (Appendix A), in 2003 the average annual Filipino family income is P147,888 or equivalent to P410.80 per day. This amount is not enough to feed an average family of five for a day.

    • Word count: 5562
  10. A Compensation System for Eastern Europe

    For example, the reward was to have the one's picture on, so called, Board of Respect. Therefore, a strong reverse side developed due to this approach: laziness, inactivity and lack of organization. Later during the Soviet era, the monetary rewards were introduced more widely on all levels. But increases in salaries and bonuses were still dependent on the fulfillment of the plans. This approach has continuously discouraged quality production compared to quantity. Innovations were poorly rewarded, because they interrupted the fixed schedules, and required new resources, which was perceived as the threat to the fulfilling of the plan.

    • Word count: 1397
  11. "Missing women" A. Sen

    Not all Asian countries have this problem and few if any Western countries are free of gender biases completely. Economic development explains the problem as the consequence of underdevelopment and poverty. The fact that only poor countries experience this problem is true, but not all poor counties have it. Moreover, "the fact that sex ratios have been falling as aggregate income has been rising seems inconsistent with a purely economic view of missing women" (Chamarbagwala & Ranger, 2006). The explanation of women deficit, proposed by Oster (2005), is based on medical findings which suggests that "women infected with the Hepatitis B virus tend to give birth to fewer girls than healthy women, with the latter attributing up to 20% of India's missing girls to the virus" (Klassen & Wink, 2003).

    • Word count: 2011
  12. The EU has Begun Negotiations with Turkey on Possible Membership. This is a Highly Controversial Issue and if Turkey is Successful in its Application there will be Major Implications for the EU itself.

    If these negotiations go as planned, Turkey will be set to join the EU by 2014. the screening process began on October 20th. This ambition to join the EEC dates back to the agreement signed in 1963; Part of the Ankara Agreement was geared towards entrance into the European Customs Union on the January 1, 1996 before entering into the Union proper. The customs union between Turkey and the EU was established in 1995. Since then, the European Community's (EU-25)

    • Word count: 3021
  13. What is globalization?

    'Globalization refers to the widening and deepening of the international flow of trade, capital, technology and information within a single integrated global market' (Petras and Veltmeyer 2001) Globalization at an economical level is highly considered to be a 'true' meaning of globalisation. At this level the main aspects that are obvious are such things as the stock markets, money, finance and many more however, even these being major aspects of economical globalization other factors that can also be considered such as production and marketing of products and services.

    • Word count: 1202
  14. UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE EU SINCE 1999

    There are a few reasons why this would be the case. The introduction of one currency throughout the zone would lead to a huge reduction, if not total eradication of uncertainty with regard to exchange rates. A Spanish firm for example could enter into a contract with a Dutch firm safe in the knowledge that there would be no sudden exchange rate shift that would cause the firm to make a large loss which should theoretically lead to more investment by firms which would bring more jobs to the Euro zone as a consequence of increased trade between member nations.

    • Word count: 1760
  15. Health of the eurozone

    or consumer spending +investment+government spending +net exports. It is one method of determining the size of an economy. There are various measurements of GDP including GDP per capita which measures the average income per person rather than the income of the entire population. However the most accurate way of measuring GDP is in terms of purchasing power parity. This shows the level of GDP compared to a base currency, usually US $, and also takes in to account relative costs f living and inflation rates rather than just the exchange rate.

    • Word count: 6083
  16. CASE SOLUTION We have 2 options of portfolio allocation based on criteria mentioned below: Option1: Optimal Portfolio based on Tangent portfolio and Efficiency Frontier

    The maximum reward to variability ratio represents the point of tangency with the portfolio set. This tangency portfolio is the optimal risk portfolio. (Check appendix for efficient frontier) * Optimal Asset Allocation: STD ER S (Reward-to-Variability) 12.67% 11.00% 0.2368 Weights Stocks 50.89% T Bonds 0.00% S.T. Sec 0.59% C.Bonds 48.52% * The optimal risk portfolio has an expected return of 11%. However the minimum downside that is acceptable is a loss of 5%. With this portfolio mix, the probability that the investment will lose excess of 5% is 10.33% [=NORMSDIST{(-5 - 11.0)/12.67}]. We now present Option2 to minimize this downside.

    • Word count: 1534
  17. Foreign Direct Investment: country comparison

    These include reform of the industrial relations system, minimal government interference, liberalisation of both the exchange and financial markets, trade liberalisation and the breakdown of barriers to FDI (PRS, 2005a). The Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB) is a non-statutory body responsible for the regulating and screening of potential foreign investors. Proposals of acquisition over A$5m, Greenfield proposals over A$10m and acquisition of urban land are screened (FIRB, 2007). However, 98% of all proposals since 1998 have been approved (Invest Australia, 2007).

    • Word count: 3539
  18. What are the major changes to the foreign trade/ investment structure of Japan after the mid- 1980s? What is the policy response of Japan to the regional cooperation in the East Asia?

    In spite of Japan's full participation in multilateral tariff reductions, it frequently has been involved in contentious trade disputes with the United States and, to a certain extent, with Europe as well. In 1980, Japan relaxed most controls on inward direct investment. Regardless of these major liberalisations of Japan's trade policy, it has often been involved in trade friction with the United States. The reason for this is that growth of Japan's exports provoked protectionist political pressure by import-competing American industries.

    • Word count: 2458
  19. Examine the significance of the single currency for decisions by TNCs to invest in Eurozone countries (40 marks)/"The UK is the largest recipient of inward forward investment within the E.U.". Evaluate the benefits of such investment for the U.K. economy

    If, for example the TNC chose to invest instead in a developing country such as China, though there would be transaction costs between here and other countries, the savings that could be made in other areas could definitely outweigh the transaction costs. It is also important to consider what volume of trade the TNC shall be doing within the Eurozone and what proportion will be out of the Eurozone. If a far greater proportion is being done outside of the zone there will be very little advantage to be gained from operating in a the "zero-transaction costs" zone and vice versa.

    • Word count: 1906
  20. What role did private investment and initivative play in the development of european imperalism

    So they did not support imperialism until they all began to see the riches that could come there way. Till then it was the private individuals that kick started imperialism. This attitude of the royals would have severely dented the European ambitions to become an imperial power. Luckily for them, ambitious merchants and other individuals all pooled their money together and sent these explorers on expeditions. They paid the expenses, and did not ask for any guarantees about returns as they knew only too well the risk they were taking. Going on an expedition was not an easy task, as the trip would probably take around nine months, with six months being spent on sea.

    • Word count: 698
  21. "...every trade, manufacture, adventure, or concern in the nature of a trade..."[1]

    I accept this as it follows the badges of trade to the letter and takes into account all aspects of the case. It's clear that the transaction was merely an investment and thus would not be taxable as a trade under ITTOIA (schedule D). Later cases present more of a problem. In regards to Ensign Tankers Ltd v Stokes, it was held by the commissioners that there was not a trading transaction taking place. On appeal to the court of appeal this decision was turned around and a trading transaction was held to be taking place.

    • Word count: 884
  22. "From the economic point of view a devastated continent". Is this an accurate description of post war Europe? What steps did the European economies take to regenerate themselves and what were the long-term economic consequences of their actions?

    Agriculture was not too badly affected, indeed the only major problems in post war Britain were two harsh winters in 1948 and 1949. Although industry was destroyed, within four years the industrial economy had bounced back. The response of Western Europe to this bleak economic outlook was to set up organisations that would break down the old nationalistic barriers and help create a stable economic climate. These included organisations such as the United Nations (UN), the international monetary fund (IMF)

    • Word count: 1782
  23. Dubai's economic strategy is based on a policy to decrease dependence on oil as the major source of income. This is reflected in the increasing development of the trade sector, agricultural reform,

    Etisalat, which is the UAE's provider of telecoms services, offers the latest in technology. A groundbreaker in terms of new products, Etisalat is working to implement third generation mobile telephony networks by 2004. Dubai International Financial Centre Located at the crossroads of the major international capital markets of New York and London (in the West) and Hong Kong (in the East), Dubai is the complementary hub connecting the region with the 24 hour/7 days a week global financial network. The Dubai International Financial Centre was conceived by the Government of Dubai for the benefit of the UAE and the region as a whole.

    • Word count: 849
  24. Write an essay on the impact of China's accession to the WTO on Investment in China, taking into account China's investment laws and regulations.

    In addition, China is also in an attempt to enact new legislation in case of absence of laws or regulations for the WTO purposes, with a view to effectively fulfilling its WTO obligations and commitments.3 China's accession to WTO has carried out an encouraging message to the world that now as a member of the WTO, China is bound by WTO rules and therefore its potential for attracting foreign investment is rising rapidly. Furthermore, its WTO membership also helps the country to assure and establish a better and safer investment environment for the country and investors.

    • Word count: 2085
  25. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of the theory of comparative advantage as a justification for free trade. To what extent have the critics of free trade managed to establish the case credible alternatives trade policies?

    "Those who promote the global economy say that the rules for trade should be based on comparative advantage" (Mander & Goldsmith. 1996. p124). Those who are pro globalisation and free trade favour the system of comparative advantage. They strive for more and more globalisation and the strengthening of regional economic trading blocs and the proliferation of free trade. It is up to the critics of the free trade movement to come up with suitable solutions to oppose the notion of comparative advantage in order to establish credible alternative trade policies.

    • Word count: 1589

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