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Expatriation and Repatriation Issues in International Human Resource Management

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Will expatriation and repatriation still be major issues in International HRM in 2020? Discuss. Abstract Expatriation and repatriation are the major issues of international human resource management (IHRM) in today's global market. Particularly expatriate failure, cultural and work force re-adjustment of repatriates which causes repatriate turnover are still a concern for most multinational companies (MNCs) from previous periods to present. Although organizations nowadays understand that the importance of expatriates and repatriates, factors such as cost and time remain a major concern in reality for business organizations. Therefore, there is a gap between the theory and practice. Also, the perspective of expatriates and human resource (HR) department are different. These reasons all indicate that expatriation and repatriation will still be the major issues of IHRM in future. 1.0 Introduction As MNCs start to apply their global strategies, expatriation and repatriation are the most common approaches to transfer its specific employees to perform company's international tasks. Also, in order to survive in today's ever-changing business environment and remain competitive edge in global markets, MNCs need to fruitfully build up an effective way in carrying out operations and take advantages of global resources and markets affiliating with its national boundaries (Tran & Wong, 2006). However, managing expatriation and repatriation is critical and is not an easy task for MNCs. Therefore, expatriation and repatriation issues still perplex of IHRM for most MNCs' management. Firstly, this essay will define the term of expatriation and repatriation. Then, critically analyze the main issues in expatriation in the area of expatriate failure and other issues related to repatriation in areas of re-entry adjustment and repatriate turnover of Tran and Wong's (2006) empirical findings in Saab Training System (STS) and Red Cross. Finally, this essay will give an overview reasons based on literatures explaining why these issues still will be a problem of IHRM in next ten years. 2.0 Expatriation For last two decades, due to internationalisation in today's global market, most MNCs start paying attention on the IHRM issue of expatriate management (DeCieri, Fenwick & Hutchings, 2005). ...read more.


If there any error incurs in the early three stages, not only caused expatriate failure but also result an ineffective repatriation such as re-entry shock and repatriate turnover (Gao & Lange, 2005). The initial expatriates selection of expatriation and pre-training processes may be responsible on this re-adjusting difficulty of repatriation due to lack of selection criteria on candidates' interpersonal adjust ability and inappropriate pre-training in the organisation (Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2008). Furthermore, repatriation may be a harder process for international assignees than expatriation because repatriates need to experience cultural or work adjustment twice, culture shock out and culture back (Dowling, Festing & Engle, 2008). So, the poor re-entry adjustment of ineffective repatriation will cause repatriate intend to leave the organisations (Bark & Bergman, 2008). Tran and Wong (2006) also argue that lack of career development is the other issue of repatriate turnover. Because a majority of repatriates often have their own career plan for future and organisations usually ignore or do not provide other better opportunities for them. According to Dowling, Festing and Engle (2008), MNCs paid less attention on repatriation process and there were just a few literatures regarding this area in the past. Due to increasing globalization, more and more expatriates are sent into overseas to assign international assignments, MNCs and academics start recognizing the importance of repatriation. Even though some MNCs start being aware of the importance of expatriation, Bark and Bergman (2008) argued that most organizations still view the problems of repatriation are minimal and often neglect their repatriates along with previous literatures from Jassawalla et al. in 2004; Black et al. in 1992 and Tung in 1988. That is the reason why most repatriates still has troubled with re-entry converse adjustment and resulted high repatriate turnover of the organizations for over two decades. 3.2. Re-entry adjustment and repatriate turnover Bark and Bergman (2008) point out that both the difficulties of re-entry adjustment after expatriates return and the displeased repatriation process are the major issues of repatriation and might cause repatriate turnover. ...read more.


International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(4), 567-583. Bark, J., & Bergman, D. (2008). Managing repatriates: a case study of resources global professionals. (Bachelor Thesis, Uppsala University, 2008). Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://uu.divaportal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:131948 Briscoe, D. and Schuler, S. (2004). International Human Resource Management. London: Routledge. De Cieri, H., Fenwick, M. S. & Hutchings, K. (2005). The challenge of international human resource management: Balancing the duality of strategy and practice. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(4), 584-598. doi: 10.1080/09585190500051688 Dowling, P. J., Festing, M. & Engle, A. D. (2008). International human resource management. (5th ed.). South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Cengage Learning Dowling, P. J. & Welch, D. E. (2004). International human resource management: Managing people in a multinational context. (4th ed.). London: Thomson Learning. Enderwick, P. & Hodgson, D. (1993). Expatriate management practices of New Zealand business. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 4(2), 407-23. Expired Expressions. (2007). Expatriate failure: A growing concern for international HRM. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://moinul.wordpress.com/ Gao, Q., & Lange, G. (2005). Preventing expatriate failure: A research on the expatriate selection and training. (Master Dissertation, Kristianstad University, 2005). Retrieved from http://eprints.bibl.hkr.se/archive/00000673/01/preventingexpatriatefailure-Group11_Gao_Qi_&_Grit_Lange.pdf Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. USA: Sage Publications. Lee, H. W. (2007). Factors that influence expatriate failure: An interview study. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5440/is_200709/ai_n21295139/ Mesmer-Magnus, J. R.,& Viswesvaran, C. (2008). Expatriate management: A review and directions for research in expatriate selection, training and repatriation. In M. M. Harris (Eds.), Handbook of Research in international human resource management. (pp. 183-206). New York: Taylor & Francis Group, LIC. Pruthi, S., Wright, M., & Meyer, K. E. (2009). Staffing venture capital firms international operations. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(1), 186-205. Shen, J., & Edwards, V. (2005). Recruiment and selection in Chinese MNEs. In Warner, M. (Eds.), Human resource management in China revisited. (pp. 198-219). New York: RoutledgeCurzon. Shilling, M. (1993). Avoid expatriate culture shock. Retrieved November 19, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_n7_v38/ai_14363477/pg_2/?tag=content;col1 Tran, H., & Wong, A. (2006). Expatriate management: How can the expatriation process be improved. (Master thesis, Jonkoping University, 2006). Retrieved from ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 | Page ...read more.

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