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  1. Financial Decision Making. Financial statements have been taken from the website from Next Plc and, using the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income (App.3) and Consolidated Balance Sheet (App.1) for the year ended 29 January 2011 the following f

    It is the total amount of issued capital for which the shareholders are required to pay. This may be less than the subscribed capital as the company may ask shareholders to pay by installments (Companies House, 2011). Referring to the Consolidated Balance Sheet (app.1), Next Plc does not have any called up share capital. ii) Share Premium Account The share premium account balances the difference between the par value of a company's shares and the amount that the company actually received for newly issued shares.

    • Word count: 4434
  2. Business Statistics Project. We took Belvin Electronics Manufacturing Company and we specifically select four different variables on their single product model our variables containing Sales, Production Cost, Advertising Expenses, & Profit.

    interval about Mean: 29 Interpretation: 29 Confidence interval about Variance: 29 Interpretation: 30 Confidence interval about Standard Deviation: 30 Interpretation: 30 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE 31 Critical Region: 31 Test Statistic: 31 ANOVA TABLE: 32 Decision: 32 Interpretation: 32 DETERMINATION OF DEPENDENT & INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: 35 Raw picture of the Data showing Dependent & Independent Variables 36 Predicted Values, Square sum of Errors, Square sum of total errors 37 Calculations for Multiple Regression Equation 38 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS 39 Required Regression Equation: 39 CO-EFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION: 40 Interpretation: 40 ADJUSTED R SQUARE: 40 Interpretation: 41 CORRELATION: 41 Interpretation: 41 HYPOTHESIS OF

    • Word count: 5320
  3. Airplane industry analysis. This report will consider the companies which have been chosen for the aviation sector, including a PEST (Political, Economic, Social and Technological) analysis of the industry. An analysis of ratios will also be used to help

    Ratio analysis to determine the financial strength of the company in areas such as profitability, liquidity, investor ratios and share price performance 10 Summary findings in form of SWOT interrelationship of PEST and strength/weakness of Companies (Template format) 10 Overall Grade for Literature review 30 Discussion to include: Results on the research. Analysis of results with reference to existing published works where appropriate 20 A discussion of the relative performance of each of the chosen companies in relation to the template above and information from group report and accounts.

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  4. Banking and Financial Structure Case study of UK banks. Looking at the three banks HSBC, RSB and Lloyds TSB and their performance we can conclude that HSBC did a little bit better than its competitors especially in the profitability measures because HSBC

    This is because of the huge losses that the bank had for the last 3 years unable to generate enough profit of the shareholders investments. The next ratios is Return on Assets (ROA) which gives an idea of how much profits are generated using the assets of a company. For RBS the ROA for the four years are: 2010 is -0.1%, 2009 is again -0.1%, 2008 is again negative with -1% and for the last year 2007 ROA is 0.4 which is again the best compared to the last 3 years.

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  5. Exchange rates. When international trade makes up a significant proportion of a countrys economic activity, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of both inflation and output

    Therefore, the exchange rate is a conversion factor, a multiplier or a ratio, depending on the direction of conversion. Thus, the exchange rate can also be considered a price of one currency in terms of the other. Exchange rate regimes (fixed or floating) are chosen by central banks (or governments). It is important to distinguish nominal exchange rates from real exchange rates. Nominal exchange rates are established on currency financial markets. Rates are usually established in continuous quotation (they maybe fixed). Real exchange rates are nominal rates corrected by inflation measures. I.1 Bilateral exchange rate A bilateral exchange rate is simply the exchange rate between the currencies of two countries, such as the US dollar/sterling or the French franc/Deutschmark exchange rate.

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  6. Free essay

    People who commit financial crimes are entirely motivated by greed. -discuss critically regarding the Dutch company Royal Ahold NV Aholds Case.

    The fraud consisted of Ahold overstating pre-tax earnings by 966 million dollars and the USA subsidiary company which was called US Foodservice (USF) comprised 856 million dollars of the fraud total (SEC 2004). In February 2003, subsequent to the executives of Ahold stating that the reported earnings were not correct, the share price dropped by 65 percent and the market capitalisation dropped from 30 billion euros to 3.3 billion euros (SEC 2004).The auditor DELOITTE and TOUCHE found irregularities and issued a letter dated February 2003 stating that it could not stand by the correctness it had certified for the previous

    • Word count: 3319

    Many countries have loosened the link of their currency to the US dollar in the global financial crisis that started in July 2007, a fact that may be explained by relying on the literature of contagion across markets. It has been a continuous rumor, especially in the last five years, regarding whether the euro will challenge the supremacy of the dollar as the leading international currency. The literature covering the debate can be divided into euro-optimists, who argue in favour of this thesis, and the euro-sceptics, who point to the obstacles the European currency faces to dethrone the dollar.

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  8. Valuation Report for SingTel. SingTel was incorporated in 1992 and it was listed in Singapore(through what still remains Singapores largest IPO) in 1993.

    and Indonesian markets (2001) by taking stakes in Bharti and Telkomsel, respectively. In 2001, SingTel bought over Optus in Australia from Cable and Wireless (which had raised its stake from 24.5% in 1997 to 52.5% by buying out Bell South, listing Optus, and participating in the IPO). In 2003, SingTel divested a majority stake in Singapore Post and it also shed its stake in other non-core businesses, emerging as a core telecom company.In 2005, SingTel entered Bangladesh through PBTL, although it was a small investment by its standards. The company made a much bigger investment in 2007, with a US$758m purchase of a 30% stake in Warid Telecom, Pakistan, but later, it took a write-down on this.

    • Word count: 12220
  9. This group assignment of Financial Management will assess the positions financial performances for six types of different companies which are listed on the Bursa Malaysia Berhad (Bursa Malaysia) and its based on three main sectors of business industrie

    Liquidity ratios attempt to measure a company's ability to pay off its short-term debt obligations. It is essential for a company the measuring of the cash flows over the time to be aware of the liquid resources available to afford the obligations. The most used liquidity ratios are: current ratio and acid test ratio. These would examine the relationship between liquid resources held and creditors due for payment in the near future1. * Current ratio: this kind of ratio shows the size of the relationship between current assets (cash and assets which would become cash in a short time)

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  10. Financial Statement Analysis of Pakistan Cables Ld.

    Generally, the higher the value of the ratio, the larger the margin of safety that the company possesses to cover short-term debts. Types of Liquidity Ratio: a. Current Ratio b. Quick Ratio a. Current Ratio: A liquidity ratio, that measures a company's ability to pay short-term obligations. The Current Ratio formula is: Also known as "liquidity ratio", "cash asset ratio" and "cash ratio". 2010: Current Ratio: = Current Assets / Current Liabilities = 1,888,162 / 1,746,750 = 1.02 times 2009: Current Ratio: = Current Assets / Current Liabilities = 1,173,985 / 1,095,266 = 1.07 times 2008: Current Ratio: = Current

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  11. Forecasting Canada's GDP. This report has examined; the Decomposed time series, the Naive Trend and the Naive Rate of Change, Brown Double Exponential Smoothing Method, Holts two-parameter method and a non-seasonal ARIMA model.

    14 Equation 6: Simplest Naive Model 19 Equation 7: Naive Trend Model 20 Equation 8: Naive Rate of Change 20 Equation 9: Naive Seasonal Model 20 Equation 10: Naive Trend and Seasonal Model 20 Equation 11: The Exponentially Smoothed Series 32 Equation 12: The Trend Estimate 32 Equation 13:p-step ahead forecast 32 Equation 14: Autoregressive Equation 41 Equation 15: Moving Average Equation 41 Equation 16: Sample Mean 44 Equation 17: Sample Variance 44 Equation 18: Sample Covariance 45 Equation 19: First Differencing Equation 46 Figure 1: Canada's GDP Whole Realisation 9 Figure 2: Decomposition of Realisation 17 Figure 3: Decomposition

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  12. Financial Analysis of Bank Alfalah Limited. Bank Alfalah is the 5th largest bank of Pakistan in terms of its assets that are 6% of the total banking sector assets. The banking sector has expanded rapidly in Pakistan along with the fast paced economic grow

    The result has been increased profitability of all banks. ================================================================= Current share Price 11 Profit after Tax 1.301 Billion (CY 07: 3.506 billion) ROA 0.37% ROE 7.63% BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORGANIZATION (BAL) Bank Alfalah Limited was incorporated on June 21st, 1997 as a public limited company under the Companies Ordinance 1984. Its banking operations commenced from November 1st, 1997. The bank is engaged in commercial banking and related services as defined in the Banking companies ordinance, 1962. The Bank is currently operating through 279 branches, with the registered office at B.A.Building, I.I.Chundrigar, Karachi Pakistan.

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  13. Working capital analysis of Videocon. The Videocon Group boasts of an annual turnover of more than USD 2 billion and is engaged in the manufacturing of a range of products from consumer electronics to home appliances. The group has numerous manufacturing

    whereas a negative working capital reflects the companies inability to meet its short term obligations with the help of its current assets. Furthermore, a negative working capital can have serious consequences and can even result in bankruptcy of a firm. A declining net working capital over the years poses a threat to the company and requires serious analysis so as to find out the reason behind it. 1 CALCULATION OF WORKING CAPITAL OF VIDEOCON GROSS WORKING CAPITAL = TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS CURRENT ASSETS 2009 (Rs.

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  14. Microfinance. Research into How far the agricultural finance has succeeded in ameliorating the conditions of farmers in the states of UP, Haryana & Bihar in India.

    The total number of respondents we examined was 60, in the 10 villages of 3 states. After gathering the responses we carried out the statistical analysis using frequency analysis and cross tabulation. After having examined in the light of the above research , we find that the proper and funneled source of agricultural finance lending to the farmers have ameliorated their condition which gets reflected in the various parameters on their life like , monthly household expenses increased, children going to school , medical expenses etc.

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  15. Financial Outlook of Spinning Industry of Pakistan: 2006-2008

    We did not find any combined report on the financial position of mills. This is an effort to give a comprehensive view of this sector. Significance and Implication of Financial Ratios: A Literature Review Financial Ratios are derived from financial reports of the firms. There is certain objectivity behind calculating the ratios. These ratios indicate financial health and strength of the firms. There is a long list of financial ratios. Sometimes, such long list can create some sort of confusion. The user needs to array all available ratios and then has to group them under various heads.

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  16. Personal Finance Case - Praveena has just completed her degree in Physics and has found a job as an employee in a nanotechnology research laboratory. She is thinking of moving out of her parents house into a rented one-bedroom flat in the city centre t

    200 Decorating flat 300 Loan repayment TOTAL EXPENDITURE 1020 SURPLUS/DEFICIT 262 1282 455 100 80 320 200 25 35 1215 67 Parents' loan is an additional cash inflow. Some errors in expenditure. Yearly First month Monthly average Income Net earnings 15,379 1,282 1,282 Parents' loan 420 420 35 Total 15,799 1,702 1,317 Expenditure Council tax 1,200 120 100 Bills 960 240 80 Food 3840 320 320 Leisure 2400 200 200 Rent 6240 520 520 HH items 300 300 25 Total 14,940 1,700 1,245 Surplus/deficit 859 2 72 a)

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  17. This case discusses the situation in which management at Ben & Jerrys Homemade, Inc. found itself in the late 1990s, with a modest but steady financial growth that was below the markets expectations, which in turn attracted several take over offe

    With the goal of making "ice cream for the people" Ben & Jerry's founders wanted to provide "... great quality products for everybody - not some elitist treat..."1 From its humbling beginning, community involvement and environmental consciousness was at the forefront of all management decisions at Ben & Jerry's. After more than twenty years, as their ice cream flavors were famous and their stores spread across the country and even internationally, management was faced with a tough decision. Their products' popularity continued to expand along with their brand name and corporate image. The company had a history of steady growth in sales, but due to management's lack of focus on increasing profits, their stock price didn't reflect it.

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  18. Foreign exchange exposure and its hedging - example of Infosys Technologies Ltd. of India.

    Components of Market Risk The exposure to market risk arises principally from exchange rate risk. Interest rate risk was the other component of their market risk. These factors are discussed in the following paragraphs. * Exchange rate risk: Exchange rate risk primarily arises from foreign currency revenues, receivables and payables, and foreign currency debt. Their evaluate net exchange rate exposure arising from these transactions and hedge such exposure based on approved risk management policies. These policies require hedging a significant portion of net exposure.

    • Word count: 8871
  19. Venture Capital_Biogen Investment Proposal

    Additionally, Biogen has developed a competitively priced generator concept design using proven equipment supplied by reliable manufacturers. 2.1 The Service Biogen offers industry leading expertise in conducting due diligence, ensuring that the projects placed in their portfolio are the most viable and profitable. A key differentiation is Biogen's ability to identify and then conduct extensive feasibility and operational & scientific studies of potential renewable energy generation facilities. Research is led by a team possessing a wealth of knowledge in the energy sector.

    • Word count: 5275
  20. Venture Capital_Carsales Investment Proposal

    The $250,000,000 raised in funding will be used to support the growth opportunities of carsales.com These values are based on implied market valuations of carsales.com using discounted cash flow (DCF) and Ratio of industry and historical analysis. The financial projections of carsales show strong earnings growth and positive cash generation. The projections show that the company is healthy and financially reliable, although based on assumptions carsales will require new equity funding of $171.9 million, while the remaining $78.1 million will be financed through debt.

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  21. Lululemon financial analysis. Lululemon Athletica is a yoga-inspired retail store that produces athletic apparel that promotes healthy and active living. Established in 1998, lululemon has been able to grow as an international athletic brand, with 124 sto

    Lululemon is active in building strong relationships with communities in which they are located. From 2006-2010 lululemon saw a growth in net income from $1,394,000 in 2006 to $58,281,000 in 2010. In four years, this is a combined growth of $56,887,000. A direct link between lululemon and its end customer, without being a wholesaler, have resulted in fewer large credit sales, and a relatively low average collection period of 4.5 days (average) between 2008 and 2010. The increase in average collection period can be attributed to the opening of franchise operations, creating larger receivables from stocking of the stores.

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  22. Development of new financial instruments

    Financial instruments include both primary and derivative instruments (derivative instruments), such as options, futures and forward contracts. In accordance with IAS 32 financial instruments arise only as a result of contract, contractual obligations and rights. Liabilities or assets are non-contractual nature, such as tax liabilities, which arise as a result of the law, are not financial assets or liabilities. Portfolio managers and investors have recourse to fixed-term contracts for insurance against rising or falling market value of financial assets. In addition, financial derivatives have significant speculative opportunities.Futures market is highly profitable, albeit a very risky field of investment.Profitability of speculative trading in derivatives could potentially reach several thousand percent per annum. However, comparable and may be lost.

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  23. Primary causes of the international financial crisis. Banks, Capital and Technology.

    Banks make profits through fee (for originating the loan) rather than spread. The bonds were insured, rated safe by rating agencies and were not on banks' books, luring banks to originate even more loans without proper screening (Farrell, 2008). The whole financial system became so intertwined that a failure in one institution meant ramifications across the financial spectrum. Traditional Banking Vs Shadow Banking - In early 2008, the Federal Reserve estimated that the shadow banking system was $20,000bn in size when compared to the traditional banking system at $11,000bn.

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  24. Fundamental and Technical Analysis on Australia and New Zealand Bank (ANZ) and Singtel shares

    Looking into the Australia Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Annual Growth Rate for the past 5 years, Australia has been experiencing positive growth in an uprising trend with occasional blips. The severe global economic crisis in 2009 serves as an exception with Australia experiencing slow but positive growth. The gradual demise of the economic crisis has seen Australia emerged as one of the worlds' strongest recovering economy as seen by the hiking growth starting from January 2010. (Source:http://www.tradingeconomics.com/default.aspx) Business confidence in Australia is also recovering from the global crisis, signifying both the current and future good health of the economy. (Source:http://www.tradingeconomics.com/default.aspx)

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"Price is what you pay. Value is what you get."

-Warren Buffett

It's been said that finance is to economics what engineering is to physics. So if you're highly numerate and abstract economic concepts don't interest you as much as the nitty-gritty of managing large piles of money, then a university degree in finance might be a good choice for you. You can study finance on itsown, or as part of a joint degree with accounting.

There's no better way to demonstrate your knowledge to the professors than to write a punchy, lucid essay, or to excel at your final written assessment. Marked by Teachers can help you get there; study our collection of marked essays and you'll learn the best way to polish your own essays to perfection.

Depending on your degree, you might take additional modules inaccounting and management, or take a year-long placement in industry. Graduates often go on to get higher degrees or to pursue careers in banking, financial management and business.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "It is meaningless to financially analyse a company without understanding the context and environment in which it operates". Discuss to what extent you agree with this statement.

    "Part 4: Conclusion To sum up, this essay has discussed that accounting data itself alone is invaluable. The lessons from MicroStrategy case have proved this point. Then, the essay has discussed how to make accounting figures more meaningful through analyzing ratio analysis, and found contextualized analysis is a better approach to achieve the goal of financial analysis by comparing with the acontextual analysis. We also have considered the international situation for foreign analysts. Finally, without doubt, contextualized analysing manner is necessary in the international situation."

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures: Discuss With ReferenceTo the Auto Car Industry.

    "Conclusion Looking at these advantages and disadvantages, it is vital that a company picks a partner which is compatible. A compatible ally is one whose products or markets complement the firms own products and customers. It is important that the firm learns about its partner's technology thoroughly before creating an alliance. The firm must be careful not to divulge competitively sensitive information to a partner. The alliance must be always thought of as a temporary arrangement so the firms can each remain competitive and not rely on the partner for success. Partners in an alliance often attempt to learn as much as possible from the other partner while guarding their distinctive skills. One of the greatest costs to a firm is the liquidation cost of the alliance, if the partners do not agree. Losing proprietary know-how is considered to be a high impact drawback of forming alliances."

  • Throughout this assignment I will look at the environment that British Airways operates in and try to critically analyse its current and past strategies.

    "To conclude the strategy that BA is currently heading is will eventually be s success due to the fact that they are starting to take notice of the smaller customers and that they are realising that there is competition in the market place and they are no longer the rulers of the roost. For their new strategic approach to work BA must continue to look forward and continue to examine the options that are available to them. They have to be careful not to get to big headed again and slip back to how they were in the early 90's."

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