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I am going to examine the HRM and training systems in Germany and Japan and discuss whether they have provided them with a national competitive advantage.
The first 200 words of this essay...
Chandler defines managerial enterprise as " those industrial concerns where
Decisions as to current production, and distribution and those involving investments in facilities and personnel for the future production and distribution are made by a hierarchy of lower, middle and top salaried managers"(Chandler 1993). Therefore a key aspect of managerial enterprise is separation of ownership from control, hierarchical structure and investments in three key areas. Chandler states that the adoption of managerial enterprise for the past century has been engines of economic growth and transformation in modern economics.
According to chandler managerial enterprise are located in large-scale capital-intensive industries, as these industries are large and can obtain diverse sources of finance from stock markets and venture capital groups, which is needed for vital investments. Due to the capital-intensive industries being of a large scale they can benefit from cost advantages of economies of scale and scope. Chandler argues that these cost advantages can only be maintained in an organisation if management make long-term investments in three key areas. These investments are regarded as the "three pronged set of investments in manufacturing, marketing and management". According to chandler by making investments in these three areas it allows a
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