Industry project life cycle
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Industry Project Life Cycles Generic Project Management Life Cycle The four sequential time periods of a project are: Concept Definition Execution (implementation or development) Finishing (commissioning or close out). Each period may be identified as a Phase and further broken down into stages that typically reflect the area of project management application and the size & complexity of the specific project. These stages are known as: Initiation, Planning, Execution, Controlling, & Closing. Industry Project Life Cycles Software Development Project Life Cycle A number of system development life cycle (SDLC) models have been created: waterfall, fountain, spiral, build and fix, rapid application development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), incremental, and synchronize and stabilize. The oldest of these, and the best known, is the waterfall: a sequence of stages in which the output of each stage becomes the input for the next. These stages can be characterized and divided up in different ways, including the following: Project planning, feasibility study: Establishes a high-level view of the intended project and determines its goals. Systems analysis, requirements definition: Refines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs. Systems design: Describes desired features and operations in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudocode and other documentation.
not solving last year's problem o because users want their new system now, or because the organization must conform to new legislation o to clear the application backlog User requirements must be understood o users must be involved in the development process o understanding is ensured by the use of concrete examples, hence the emphasis on o prototyping Software developers must be allowed to do their job with the minimum of bureaucratic interference Rapid application development Advantages: Quick results, not abstract, users have assurance that correct solution will be produced Industry Project Life Cycles Waterfall Approach Software development has gradually evolved from unstructured to structured, both in producing programs and in managing projects The waterfall approach assumes all requirements are written down before producing them. Each definition is "signed off" by the user before starting work Project definition signed before starting project Systems analysis agreed before starting design Design agreed before starting programming, and so on Advantages: Planned duration, responsibility pinned down, orderly, should result in few corrections late in project Waterfall approach All is not rosy It can be difficult to state when a stage is complete, i.e. we may have to correct to previous work Industry Project Life Cycles Causes of failure once a project has started: 74% Unclear objectives and requirements 60% Lack of business commitment 58% Business requirements changing 45% Poor communication o Taylor A (2000)
programmers always work in pairs (considered more productive) the system gets released regularly in small increments customers are allowed to suggest improvements redesigns are common - what they call refactoring - and handled easily A thought eAD (2000): "If changes are continuous, then we'll never get an up-front design completed. Furthermore, as changes become more unpredictable -- a great likelihood today -- then much anticipatory design likely will be wasted." XP and project management Each element of functionality is called a story, and each one is written on a card. The project scope and plan is simply and efficiently created by manipulating the cards by hand. Progress monitoring is achieved by tracking the unit test for each story. Quality is assured by two main themes. Paired programmers ensure learning, adherence to standards, and avoidance of errors. Unit tests are core to coding and are designed before writing the code. The programmers are responsible for proving to the customer that each unit works correctly, rather than the customer having to prove that it doesn't work. See Hutcheson (2004) for a discussion of software testing in XP projects. Efficiency is gained through minimal bureaucracy; focus on delivering quickly; focus on getting it right first time; only documentation: cards and source code; not trying to predict all possible future changes; handling current changes easily; testing automated; Industry Project Life Cycles metric collection automated; progress monitored by following story cards and test results.
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