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Job Satisfaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Job Satisfaction Abstract The issue of Job Satisfaction, Motivation in the workplace and the role of Job Characteristics have been the cause of intensive research for many years now and have given rise to many theories, formed on the basis of extended research by psychologists, social scientists and HRD managers. The concept of job satisfaction, though of considerably recent origin, is closely linked to motivation in the workplace and is a causal factor in improved performance in the workplace. These issues are again linked to Job Characteristics, which primarily describe the inherent features of a job, which can again motivate or demotivate workers, and whose tweaking can thus change a the inherent motivational features of the job. During recent times an impression has been gaining ground that all is not well with the satisfaction and motivational levels of workers in British business, a fact that is also borne out to a certain extent by recent surveys. It is the purpose of this research assignment to delve deeply into the matter and investigate all the above areas as well as linked developments. This will enable the establishment of causal relationships between these variables and possibly enable the research come up with fresh perspectives and practicable effective solutions for the improvement of worker satisfaction and national productivity. Contents Serial Description Page A Introduction 3 1 Background 3 2 Statement and Significance of Research Problems 5 3 Research Questions 7 4 Purpose of Study 8 5 Limitations of Study 9 B Literature Review 10 1 Current Thinking on Employee Motivation 11 2 The Importance of Job Characteristics 18 3 Harassment in the Workplace 21 4 Effect of Use of Computers on Job Satisfaction 23 5 Improvement in Job Satisfaction 24 6 Current Levels of Job Satisfaction in the UK 28 C Research Design and Methodology 31 1 Research Statement 31 2 Choice of Analytical Approach 32 3 Choice of Information Scenario 36 4 Population and Sampling 36 5 Data Collection 37 6 Data Analysis 42 References 43 A. ...read more.

Middle

The Importance of Job Characteristics A proper understanding of Job Characteristics and its application for increasing employee motivation is one of the major objectives of this research assignment. Hackman and Oldham (1976) originally proposed their Job Characteristics Theory as a three-stage model, in which a set of core job characteristics impact a number of critical psychological states, which, in turn, influence a set of affective and motivational outcomes. The five actors that make up the first stage are as under. � Skill Variety: Employees use a variety of skills to complete their jobs, skills that have been acquired by long years of study and/ or experience and are the primary reason for their employment and work allocation in a business organisation. � Task identity: Involvement of the worker in all steps of the job, thus providing identification with the task � Task Significance: The significance of the job being properly executed to the well being of the organisation � Autonomy: The freedom to do the job with responsibility and by oneself � Feedback: The provision of feedback providing information about the excellence of performance of the job In the second stage , the first three characteristics together provide meaningfulness of the work to the employee, autonomy provides responsibility for carrying out the assigned work, and feedback provides the worker with knowledge about the results of the work. All together, in the third stage of the process, they help in motivation and performance optimization. Research on the job characteristics model has found relations between employee perceptions of specific core characteristics inherent in the job's design -- skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from the job itself -- and employee intrinsic job motivation and satisfaction with the job itself. A job that possesses higher levels of these core characteristics is higher in motivating potential. This relation between job characteristics and employee motivation is moderated by the employee's growth-need strength (i.e., the degree to which achievement of one's potential, personal growth, and skill mastery are important to an individual). ...read more.

Conclusion

In the third approach, quantitative results help interpret predominantly qualitative findings, as when focus group participants are asked to fill out survey questionnaires at the session. In the fourth model, the two methodologies are used equally, in parallel to cross-validate, and build upon each other's results. ... may operate under one or more of these models; the approaches are not mutually exclusive. (Weinreich, 1996) Exploratory research conducted at the beginning of the project in this case involved both quantitative and qualitative data and include interviews with respondents closely involved in the running of hospices. Information obtained from the initial exploratory research can also be used to form the basis for taking a decision on an appropriate final research path. The messages and materials developed based upon the exploratory research can then be refined for both qualitative and quantitative methods so that the results provide depth of understanding as well as representative of the population. It is felt that in this case integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods will lend depth and clarity to the research assignment. Using multiple approaches can be time-consuming, labour-intensive and expensive, but also possibly the most productive. 3. Choice of Information Source The choice of material to be used for the research assignment also needs decision and quantification. In this case, the researcher has used both primary and secondary sources of information for compilation of data. Primary sources used include both information available publicly and information gathered by the researcher. The researcher has depended upon the results of surveys carried out by the researcher as well as by other capable organizations on issues that are relevant to the issue under investigation. Public materials include governmental notifications, original company websites and pronouncements by senior officials in the media on the research subject. 4. Population and Sampling The research methodology focuses on an investigative study of the data sources made available for this study as well as the texts reviewed in the Literature Review. The literature has been chosen with care and studied extensively. ...read more.

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