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Leadership Theories - this review seeks to determine which theoretical perspectives, theories and schools of thought have thus far underpin our understanding about leadership development. Recognizing the origins that form our current knowledge on leadersh

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CONTENTS Abstract 3 Contents 4 Table of Figures 8 Table of Tables 9 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 10 Aim of the Review 11 Structure of the Paper 12 CHAPTER II: POSITIONING THE FIELD OF INQUIRY 14 Leadership 16 The Heterogeneousness of Leadership: Myriad of Theories, Defintions and Concepts 16 The Intricateness of Leadership 20 Summary 27 Leadership Development 28 The Science and Practice of Leadership Development 29 Leadership Development = Adult Development? 29 Summary 32 Self and Identity 32 How the Self Changes? 33 Self and Leadership 34 Summary 35 Conclusions and Review Questions 35 Systematic Review Questions 37 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY 38 The Systematic Review Process 39 Consultation Panel 39 Search Strategy 40 Databases 41 Other Sources of Information 41 Keywords 42 Search String 43 Results from the Search Strategy 43 Selection Criteria 44 Selection Criteria for Titles and Abstracts 44 Selection criteria for Full Text Papers 45 Quality Appraisal 47 Final Selection of Publications 48 Data Analysis 49 Synthesis 50 CHAPTER IV: CONCEPTUAL FINDINGS 51 Defining Theoretical Perspectives 52 Developing Categories of Perspectives 54 The Perspectives 55 Personal Growth Perspective 56 Psychodynamic Perspective 57 Cognitive Perspective 59 Competence-based Perspective 61 Critical Theory Perspective 63 Systems perspective 65 Strategic Perspective 67 Consolidative Perspective 68 Self & Identity in Perspective 70 Personal Development 71 CHAPTER V: DESCRIPTIVE FINDINGS 73 Distribution by Perspective 74 Cronological Distribution Of Papers 75 Chronological Distribution of Perspectives 76 Geographical Distribution of Papers 77 Distribution by Type of Source 78 Distribution by Title and Ranking of Peer-Reviewed Articles 78 Distribution of Perspectives by Ranking 80 Type of Academic Publication & Methodology Applied 81 Distribution of Perspectives by Type of Publication 82 Content Analysis 83 Presence of Self & Identity Constructs 83 Self & Identity Per Perspective 84 Structures and Processes 85 CHAPTER VI: DISCUSSION 89 Comparing & Contrasting Perspectives 90 Ontology & Levels of Analysis 93 Self & Identity = Unifying Concepts? ...read more.

Middle

Narcissism originates from the conflicts and frustration of growing up, as the infant has an omnipotent sense of self that needs to be frustrated in the right doses by 'good enough' parenting (Kets de Vries, 2004). Personalized leaders, such as Hitler, are characterized by narcissistic and self-aggrandized behaviors and attitudes that are considered to be rooted in narcissistic deprivation (Popper & Mayseless, 2007); that is, as a child, these individuals were exposed to too much, too little, or irregular stimulation from their parents that produce feelings of rage, envy, humiliation, and a desire for status and power (Kets de Vries, 2004). On the other hand, socialized leaders, such as Gandhi, are motivated by moral and social issues and demonstrate respect towards followers, since due to a supportive parental environment, they are able to go beyond narcissistic interests (Popper & Mayseless, 2007). Even if as a child an individual received the appropriate amount of frustration from their caretakers to challenge the infantile omnipotent view of themselves, developing thus a healthy narcissism, other intra-psychic factors might impair their leadership effectiveness. For instance, transference - the assumption that "no relationship is a new relationships, and that all relationships are colored by previous relationships" (Kets de Vries & Korotov, 2007:380), especially the relationship with the primary caretakers - might influence how leaders react to followers, and also how followers react to leaders (Kets de Vries, 2008). In addition, a healthy narcissism do not preclude the development of hidden feelings, conflict, anxiety and defensive behaviors within the unconscious of the individual caused by unacceptable feelings or thoughts (Kets de Vries & Korotov, 2007). The role of leadership development programs that utilized the psychodynamic perspective, therefore, is to work with these unconscious wounds, experiences, repressions and transferences so that leaders can "recognize their strengths and weaknesses, understand the cause of their resistance to change, and recognize where and how they can become more effective" (Kets de Vries, 2004: 188). ...read more.

Conclusion

Another struggle that I faced in the systematic review related to the level of thoroughness and detail required by the review. When you tell a former natural scientist, like me, to be systematic and methodical, the level of detail can be painstaking. However, as I have come to realize, the systematic review is (despite the deceiving impressions that the descriptive analysis section might produce) a qualitative project, at least when applied to management research. Most of the process involves subjective decisions and interpretation in part of the researcher. I've struggled with that. The criteria selection, although guided me, seemed too flexible, malleable and subjective. I missed the simplicity of counting neurons, measuring whistles or calculating frequencies that was part of my research past. Nonetheless, I also come to realize the richness and understanding that a qualitative analysis provides. As it can be seen in the discussion about self and identity, the content analysis and descriptive only gave me a broad sense of what was there, but it was the qualitative evaluation of the articles that showed me the depth of these constructs in leadership development. Thus, this was an important lesson in valuing and understanding qualitative methods. Finally, a vital learning that this review produced was my own level of understanding about the phenomenon I want to study in my PhD, namely leadership development. I now perceive the leadership development literature and its issues in a completely new light. CHAPTER VII: CONCLUSION In conclusion, this review demonstrates that leadership development, like the phenomenon it wants to improve - leadership - is also multidimensional, as can be observed in the different aspects that different theoretical perspectives emphasize. The study of leadership development with an awareness that there are different lens, backgrounds and assumptions in different leadership development initiatives depending on their theoretical underpinning is vital for the progression of the field. This study also corroborates the importance of self and identity constructs for the study of leadership. The study of different levels of self and identity construct, namely individual, relational and collective, might be the linkage between leader and leadership development. ...read more.

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