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'List and critique each of Deming's 14 points. Explain how each point can be applied to the business, when managing in a quality way'.

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Introduction

Managing in a quality way Level 2 Assignment 2 Lecturer: B.Mojsejczuk Table of Contents Assignment 1, Deming's 14 points - 2 Assignment 3, Juran's Trilogy - 5 Assignment 5, Ishikawa Diagrams - 9 Bibliography - 10 Assignment 1 'List and critique each of Deming's 14 points. Explain how each point can be applied to the business, when managing in a quality way' Although criticized for not conveying the depth of his philosophies, the 14 points formulated by W. Edwards Deming are now the basis for most high-level U.S and Japanese companies. They provide managerial goals rather than managerial tools. Each point (condensed below) endeavors to build customer awareness, reduce variation, and nurture constant change and improvement throughout an organization. 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service. What the customer's needs are will drive a company's evaluation of its processes, products and market to achieve success. Short-term reaction should be replaced with long-term planning. A new mission statement is developed, publicized, referred to and used to question company activity against. This at a process level requires the fine-tuning of every function in an organization to meet company strategy. 2. Adopt the new philosophy for economic stability. The customer's right to expect quality must be the thrust of any long-term strategy and management must lead. Defects, mistakes, faulty materials and bad service must be eradicated, as they are costly. These costs are passed on to the customer. Brainstorming sessions can identify areas requiring attention and action implemented. Although in theory logical, companies rarely develop this point fully as it requires enormous amounts of change. 3. Cease reliance on mass inspection to achieve quality. Production line inspections merely correct the defects in the product and not the process producing it. Inspection in Deming's concept required the spotting of defects from within the process by the workers themselves building quality into the product in the first place. Businesses could encourage workers to suggest improvements, without fear (see point 8), at regular management meetings. ...read more.

Middle

Quality costs are the costs associated with preventing, finding, and correcting defective work. These costs are huge, sometimes running at 20% - 40% of sales. Many of these costs can be significantly reduced or completely avoided using Juran's methods and tools. Juran defines quality itself as 'fitness for use', which he divides into quality of design, quality of conformance, availability and service. Juran's concepts endeavor to increase quality, necessitate increased conformance and decreased quality costs. But more than anything Juran has taken the philosophies of quality from its statistical beginnings to what is now known as total quality control (TQM). In Juran's view these goals in quality can only be achieved through managerial processes. Juran defined three managerial processes that are necessary to achieve quality. The three processes combined are called the Juran Trilogy and include quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. Quality Planning 'Create a process that will be able to meet established goals and do so under operating conditions' -Juran This is the activity of developing the products and processes required to meet customer's needs. Juran developed a series of principles as follows; * Meet customers' needs * Minimize product dissatisfaction * Avoid rework * Optimize company performance * Allow participation by everyone in the company. Never afraid to provide managerial tools as well as principles, Juran also provided a 10-step roadmap for quality planning in his book, Quality Control Handbook, 4th edition. The steps shown below require measurements at every stage to be effective. 1. Identify Customers 2. Discover Customers' Needs 3. Translate the Customers' Needs into our Language 4. Establish Units of Measure 5. Establish Measurement 6. Develop Product 7. Optimize Product Design 8. Develop the Process 9. Optimize: Prove the Process Capability 10. Transfer to Operations When applied to quality management within a company these steps can implement a robust quality costing system. Quality Control 'Keep the waste from getting worse; meet quality goals during operations'-Juran Juran insists that processes, even ones known to work well, must be constantly monitored. ...read more.

Conclusion

In quality management Pareto analysis is a powerful tool for highlighting attention to the main factors contributing towards a quality problem. Often used after a dissection of the quality problem into possible causes, through an Ishikawa diagram, it can generate ideas and suggestions to gain control over these causes. Its use should be continual though, to maintain effectiveness and over a period of time will show pictorial evidence of an improvement in quality. Scatter Diagrams Scatter diagrams are used to examine the possible relationship between two variables, cause and effect. Although these diagrams cannot prove that one variable causes the other, they do indicate the existence of a relationship, as well as the strength of that relationship. The diagram has one variable plotted on the y-axis, usually the cause, and the other variable on the x-axis, usually the effect (See diagram right). The overall shape of the scattered points plotted presents valuable information about the graph. The slope of the diagram indicates the type of relationship that exits. Simply put, variables that follow a linear pattern are related while variables that do not aren't. Linearity has four main parameters that must be taken into consideration to draw more information from the diagram: * Correlation - If the plotted points are close to being a straight line there is a strong correlation. * Slope - The steeper the correlated points are the greater the relationship is. An increase in the cause (x-axis) has a larger impact on the effect(y-axis). * Direction - The cause variable can affect the effect variable either positively or negatively. * Y-axis intercept - Drawing a line through the plotted point, following the slope, results in the line crossing the y-axis. This is the maximum Y value for a negative slope and the minimum Y value for a positive slope. Using these parameters enables the interpretation of the scatter diagrams and is a valuable tool for problem solving in quality management. Ishikawa offered useful information on how to interpret a scatter diagram in his books, The Guide to Quality Control and The Statistical Quality Control Handbook. ...read more.

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