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University Degree: Management Studies

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  1. The Importance of Culture in an Organization

    Culture also acts as a form of control system for the company. A control system is a way of monitoring the worker's performance. For example, when a supervisor pays close attention to his workers, he can influence and ensure that everything is going according to plan. Culture is a form of a social control system that can be formed into a certain way. Caring about those we work with is a form of control whenever we are in their presence. (Staw, pg. 309) With social control, we often feel as though we have great autonomy, even though we are being somewhat manipulated to act and perform the way others wants us to act.

    • Word count: 2483
  2. Evidence shows that it is easier to talk about organisational change than to implement such change effectively. Discuss

    The factors which make implementing change a difficult process are complex in nature. They are discussed below in detail. Complex nature of factors determining the effectiveness of OC: 1) OC and organisational culture: There are several instances when the organisational culture has become an obstacle in the way of OC programme. Due to lack of flexibility in organisational culture and structure, it becomes difficult to implement change effectively. Organisational culture need to be supportive & flexible to facilitate the effective implementation of change.

    • Word count: 2548
  3. People and Organisational management in the built environment

    Why are the Understanding of People and Organisational Management Important? Organisation is a complex world. In the construction industry, different organisations work together to meet a single objective. Here it is important to understand how the organisation works and how they influence the productivity of the people working in it. An effective management of people is important for the success of any organisation. The classical theorist F. W. Taylor, who is known as the father of scientific management said about the 'one way of doing work' (Management, Bartol & Martin, 1998).

    • Word count: 2937

    These cash flows represent the cash flows available to equity investors which include the VC. For many VC investments these cash flows will be identical to free cash flows to an all-equity firm because the firms being funded are often financed without any debt. The VC will then estimate the time at which it is likely that the VC will exit the investment. The VC usually will have a specific exit strategy - an IPO, sale to a strategic buyer in mind, or restructuring - in mind. The VC will then attempt to put a value on the company at that exit date.

    • Word count: 2851
  5. people are customers too

    Meaning that they will have similar feelings and ideas about a marketing mix containing of a given product or service sold at a given price, distributed in a certain way. A target audience is the primary group of people that something such as an advertising campaign is aimed at appealing to. A target audience can be people of a certain age group, gender, marital status and so on whereas a target market is the market segment to which a particular product is marketed; it is often defined by age, gender, location and socioeconomic grouping.

    • Word count: 2169
  6. Critically analyse the academic literature on a national culture of your choice from the ones studied, described and mapped by Hofstede, and Hofstede & Bond. Using their views plus those of Trompenaars and other researchers, indicate the likely implicati

    This has motivated me to research in this area within the Indian culture of the business industry. From gaining valuable knowledge in this field of interest, it will strengthen my understanding of international businesses. It may also enable me apply for a position abroad such as India to relate my theoretical knowledge to practical business situations. India is located in the northern hemisphere, south west of Asia. It forms a natural subcontinent with the Himalayan Mountain range to the north.

    • Word count: 2461
  7. Are men victims of equality in contemporary organisations?

    In this essay, a background of the different stages undertaken by women since the twentieth century will be examined. Thus, allowing one to understand the first steps towards equality. Furthermore, discrimination at work and arguments relating with equal opportunities will be faced. At the beginning of the twentieth century the suffragette movement won the right for women to vote in parliamentary elections. By 1919, all women over thirty could vote. This was subsequently decreased to twenty-one in nineteen twenty-eight. For the first time this put women equal to men in relation to voting rights. Sexual discrimination, or at least the abolishment of it, is a prominent issue in equal opportunities.

    • Word count: 2190
  8. Dell: Selling Directly, Globally.

    Inventing and successfully implementing the "Dell direct" business model brought many advantages with: no more unnecessary costs, i.e. no agenda other than giving the customer what he or she wants1., no middlemen to eat into profits2.., no inventory3. (these are the three guiding principles/golden rules at the company). 1. Direct relationships with the customers allow the management to know and forecast the market better. In time, this customer-focused business model became the key differentiator for Dell. 2. With no middlemen, there is a direct forecast about where the market is going. 3. The power of the model is also in substituting information for inventory.

    • Word count: 2792
  9. The extent to which corrupt practices is perceived among businesses in different cultures and the code of ethics applied to justified such practices when reasonable.

    This essay will examine the ethics and moral issues existing in the world of international transactions. It will discuss whether companies find 'normal' the acceptance of bribes, the considerations of moral and practical dilemmas and the implications for engaging in such practices. As part of a short literature review it will also assess the major ethical systems of dedication by Adam Smith, John S. Mill and others. In many countries ethics are guided by local religions beliefs. It can be said that for these cultures businesses would never commit acts of bribery because of their genuine religions belief.

    • Word count: 2248
  10. How does a person's culture influence his/her personal relationship

    Next, an example about how a business deal could be terminated due to unsuccessful communications will be explained. Low and High context cultures are described on the following paragraph identifying how direct or indirect a conversation may be conducted depending on cultural background. It will be pointed out in what ways cultures make the use of time combined with task management. Where time is vital, the disparities found in monochromic and polychromic societies will be apparent. Finally, the conclusion correlates the factors previously referred which will influence cultures on communicating effectively. The world is continuously sharing cultural experiences by reciprocal interaction, and for the purpose of maintaining such relations, it becomes essential to communicate well in order to appreciate a better understanding of the whole subject.

    • Word count: 2805
  11. Compare and contrast approaches to labour flexibility of Germany and Japan. How do you account for the differences?

    This usually involves multi-tasking and self-sufficient teamwork, as well as the lack of rigid job demarcation lines. The required recurring investment in training and retraining normally leads to long-term employment relationships. (2) Numerical flexibility. This denotes the ability of management to vary the amount of labour employed. This can be achieved by labour policies relying on hire and fire to adjust the volume of labour to changes in demand. A typical employment such as part-time and fixed-term workers, as well as the externalisation of work via subcontracting can enhance numerical flexibility. (3) Temporal flexibility. This relates to changes in the number and timing of hours worked.

    • Word count: 2522
  12. Ethics and Procurement Management

    And many unethical decisions are made in the interest of turning higher profits. Whether a project team over-promises and under-delivers; cuts corners to save labour, time, or materials; or uses inferior equipment or materials, the bottom line is, it's unethical. It is a business owner's responsibility to determine what his maximum profit can be without compromising ethical integrity. When it comes to ethics, Martin believes "... persons and safe products come first, not profits". (Martin, 1996) This section on theory serves to give a brief overview of procurement management and ethics, and explore and discuss the importance of ethics in project procurement management, the implementation of ethics into procurement management practices, and the various reasons why unethical behaviour perpetuates.

    • Word count: 2815
  13. Management of Service Operations

    I have seen that "Roti" has everything that a good restaurant should have. Roti have high standard dining area with enough seating. The food served at the restaurant is of high quality and the employees at Roti are trying their best to make every customer experience unique by being alert during the service operation. The service quality and is good and quick. According to my research on the restaurant there is a high fluctuation in its sales pattern and this is due to the change in number of customers attending the restaurant.

    • Word count: 2042
  14. The global business revolution has rendered obsolete national industrial policy to support large indigenous firms. Discuss

    This acceleration has been largely as a result of technological advances which are redefining the way business is conducted, presenting previously unheard of possibilities for global business transactions. The most recent global change that has taken centre-stage is "the cross-border integration of production of many manufactured goods and services within the common ownership of MNEs" (Dunning 73). However, although technological change is probably the most important cause of globalization, other factors have contributed to the internationalization of business. Of note is the change in the political economy of former communist states arising from the decline of the former USSR and the revival of the market economy in these regions.

    • Word count: 2376
  15. Free essay

    Teams. In this essay I will attempt to evaluate the following statement, successful projects need successful teams.

    There are many other functions but not all will be combined together when working on a task. Research has shown that the arrangement and management of a team determines how a team behaves to these functions. In other words, a team can not be effective if many functions are performed simultaneously. Instead, each team needs to be organised and managed to be most effective for the function intended. It is also important to mention that individuals in a team have their own purposes.

    • Word count: 2219
  16. In this essay, I will look at the importance of stakeholders in todays organisations, taking into consideration the other key factors that organisations have to contemplate when making strategic decisions.

    I will also explore who has the responsibility to manage stakeholders, along with their expectations. This in itself is an important characteristic for organisations to understand, and will assist with future decision making. The Role of Stakeholders in Strategic Management It is essential to consider all stakeholders when determining your organisations strategy, and key to this is identifying their 'role'. Stakeholders are the life-blood of an organisation and can determine the level of success an organisation can have. So who, or what, are stakeholders?

    • Word count: 2623
  17. Contingency theories of leadership were intended to resolve the problems of Trait and Behavioural theories. To what extend have they achieved this?

    Lastly a leader knows the goals that he/she has to achieve, the aim of his/her work and has the 'power' to drive people to these and lead them to the goals they have to attain. Thus, this traditional definition of leadership shows in overall that a leader leads two or more people toward a particular end they all have to achieve. As Kevin and Jackie Freiberg put it, leadership is 'a dynamic relationship based on mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they affect real, intended change' (K.

    • Word count: 2898
  18. Whats facing Sunwinds managing director Lars Olov Larsson are the following problems: - How to tackle the capacity and quality problems? - Should the company implement JIT delivery? - How to work with Volvo to implement JI

    More troubling is the fall from 10.9% EBITDA in 1983 of just over 9 million skr. Income Statements (Summary) (Skr 000) 9/1/84 to 8/31/85 9/1/83 to 8/31/84 9/1/82 to 8/31/83 Sales 102,092 57,693 84,783 Less: Manufacturing, selling and administrative expenses 98,136 54,321 75,696 Operating earnings before depreciation 3,956 3,372 9,087 Less: Depreciation 2,125 1,266 1,806 Interest Expense 1,347 785 1,327 484 1,321 5,954 Plus: Interest and nonoperating income 290 362 762 Net earnings before tax and allocations 774 1,683 6,716 There are undoubtedly many contributors to the drop off in profitability such as rise in materials costs and other common business challenges, but a significant portion of the business expense increases seem tied to inefficiencies at Sunwind as the company attempts to grow revenue on a new product such as Volvo's 700 series floor lids.

    • Word count: 2730
  19. RFID and Its Impact To Global Logistics

    (EPCglobal, by the way, has trademarked the term "Electronic Product Code.") These codes include details about the product, its size, and case count along with other identifiers, such as point of origin, producing factory, and production batch information. When a tagged case or pallet passes a reader, it transmits the product data to that reader, which then downloads it to a host computer, where it can be merged into a company's inventory management database (3). One of the key differences between RFID and barcode technology is that RFID eliminates the need for line-of-sight reading, which bar coding depends on. Also, RFID scanning can be done at greater distances than barcode scanning.

    • Word count: 2250
  20. group assignment report: information systems

    no work to do; which is not fair on the others, furthermore it is not considering the different skills each team member has and therefore not the most productive way to organise the group. We agreed that we needed one person to be the group leader to manage the group and make sure we stay focused on the assignment by facilitating planning such as who should be working on each task and when they should have it completed by while taking all views on board.

    • Word count: 2015

    Great leaders usually have these combinations of traits. Many researches were made in order to find out the characteristics required for a successful leader. Although different researches discovered different traits, most of them are just differ in a minor sense. A classic survey by Stogdill (1948)1 identified intelligence, scholarship, and dependability in exercising responsibilities, activity, social participation and socio-economic status as primary factors. McCall and Lombardo (1983)2 stated that leadership traits should contain emotional stability and composure, admitting error, good interpersonal skills, and intellectual breadth.

    • Word count: 2288
  22. What makes someone a better business leader

    Effective leadership is all about creating this shared purpose and vision. Endrissat et al. (2005) also assert "Leadership is conventionally associated with a power imbalance and a unidirectional influence process". This is one of many possible understandings of phenomenon and it is the one that traditional leadership theory and research have adopted and emphasizes the role of the leader along with his/her traits and behaviors. In addition, Chan & Maubourgne (1992) defined leadership as the ability to invigorate belief and assist among the people who are needed to achieve common goals.

    • Word count: 2396
  23. Management is a process of working with customers and resources to accomplish organization goals.

    Interest rates, inflation, the federal deficit, and unemployment levels are all elements affecting the economy. Demographics describe the population in terms of age, gender, education, income, occupation, etc. Competitors, suppliers, new entrants, and substitute products are part of the competitive environment, government agencies are not. Organizations must acquire a variety of resources in order to produce a product or service or value. These resources may include material, equipment, financing or even people/employees. The sources that provide these various resources are referred to as suppliers. In determining the anticipated sales volume for the next quarter or the next year, a manager would use forecasting.

    • Word count: 2191
  24. According to Bob Doweling of Business Week, he believes that with

    Disney's long-term vision is to maximize profits and cash flow and to increase shareholder value. The company's long-term philosophy, mission, and values suggest that Walt Disney tries very hard to create products and offer services that will surpass the quality of every other company, not only to make a bigger profit but also to please their customers (Disney's Corporate Website, 2003). "Disney is a great place to work because the Company is filled with people who enjoy creating great entertainment", said Co-Chairman of Disney Media Networks, George Bodenheimer, when asked about the work environment at Disney.

    • Word count: 2071
  25. Using the Conservative Party as a working example, apply relevant management theory to the actions of the organisation in recent years, critically evaluating the appropriateness of behaviour, concentrating on leadership as a subject area.

    The Times: 2003:1 This statement questions the overall unity of the party, which is critical because one would have to assume that all of the party's members must have to be working towards the same thing, which would be to get back into power. This could be said to be contradicting a definition of leadership that is put to us by P.G Northouse, who defines as follows, "Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal" Northouse, P.

    • Word count: 2021

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