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University Degree: Management Studies
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Describe the shifts in the world economy over the past 30 years. What are the implications of these shifts for international businesses based in UK.
Additionally, to observe the implications of these shifts for international businesses based in the United Kingdom, an example of a Multinational Enterprise globally expanded, such as Tesco Ltd, will be used. Over the last five years many natural disasters have affected world population and the world's economy. Probably the two most astonishing, disruptive and destructive events were the 2004 Tsunami, on the Indonesian island, where a two meter wall of water hit the coast killing over 200,000 people and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina, one of the deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States.
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The global business revolution has rendered obsolete national industrial policy to support large indigenous firms. Discuss
This acceleration has been largely as a result of technological advances which are redefining the way business is conducted, presenting previously unheard of possibilities for global business transactions. The most recent global change that has taken centre-stage is "the cross-border integration of production of many manufactured goods and services within the common ownership of MNEs" (Dunning 73). However, although technological change is probably the most important cause of globalization, other factors have contributed to the internationalization of business. Of note is the change in the political economy of former communist states arising from the decline of the former USSR and the revival of the market economy in these regions.
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This was a result of what is known as the 'Shuman Plan' which proposed that European nations integrate their coal and steel resources, which at that time were a vital source of asset to generate income, thus further strengthening ties which meant there was less chance of future conflict. In 1957 the Treaty of Rome was established, aiming to remove trade barriers giving members freedom of movement, services and capital and social freedom. In the mid sixties European expansion was fully under way with many states applying to become members starting off with the U.K, Ireland, Denmark and Norway in 1973 joining the European Community, followed by Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986.
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Firstly, as Maslow (1943) as cited in Maitland (1995:1) et al believed that' all individuals have a set hierarchy of needs, which they want to be satisfied.' There include: as a physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem and self-actualization. The "Hierarchy of Needs" is shown as following. (http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_maslow.asp) From this graph, it is easy to understand how the Hierarchy of needs work. If the low-level of needs cannot be solved, it is cannot process to higher levels of needs.
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Several attributes of this technology have profound implications on electronic commerce, driving the re-definition of business. He also sated that "These attributes include global connection and access, technological complexity and change, time to market, and legal and regulatory requirements, and these same attributes play an important role as enablers of threats to the business' information infrastructure." (Anderson, 1997). He also described that "Information security has several components and attributes that must be considered when analyzing potential risk. Broadly, these fall into three categories: availability, confidentiality, and integrity. Threats in any of these categories can seriously disrupt business.
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How socially responsible Akelius Insurance is? On July 1, 2007 Mr. Larsson donated all his shares in Akelius Insurance to a charitable foundation "Sievert Larsson Scholarship Foundation". This means that all profit from the insurance company will go to charitable purposes. At the moment the Foundation supports a number of organizations in Thailand that provides gifted and deserving students with the means for a higher education. Furthermore, in Akelius Insurance the climate changes of today and the future replenishment of energy are two of the most important questions right now.
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Teams. In this essay I will attempt to evaluate the following statement, successful projects need successful teams.
There are many other functions but not all will be combined together when working on a task. Research has shown that the arrangement and management of a team determines how a team behaves to these functions. In other words, a team can not be effective if many functions are performed simultaneously. Instead, each team needs to be organised and managed to be most effective for the function intended. It is also important to mention that individuals in a team have their own purposes.
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In this essay, I will look at the importance of stakeholders in todays organisations, taking into consideration the other key factors that organisations have to contemplate when making strategic decisions.
I will also explore who has the responsibility to manage stakeholders, along with their expectations. This in itself is an important characteristic for organisations to understand, and will assist with future decision making. The Role of Stakeholders in Strategic Management It is essential to consider all stakeholders when determining your organisations strategy, and key to this is identifying their 'role'. Stakeholders are the life-blood of an organisation and can determine the level of success an organisation can have. So who, or what, are stakeholders?
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"Does the 21st century transformational form of superleader simply represent the re-emergence of trait-based theories of leadership? Critically assess this question with reference to at least two different approaches to leadership."
Frequently there is confusion between leadership and authority. Authority is often seen as the possession of power based on formal role. In organisations, for example, somebody tends to focus on the manager. They are seen as people who have the right to direct the personnel. Their inferiors obey them because they see their exercise of power as legitimate. It may also be that they fear the consequences of not following their orders or requests. They are afraid of loosing their post or even the appreciation of their supervisor or their colleagues', which is why they avoid the risk of taking initiatives.
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Those eight companies turned in mixed results in 2004 after a blowout 2003, when seven out of eight were winners. While an index of the Standard & Poor's 500 stocks was up 9% in 2004, a portfolio of stocks in the companies led by women was up just 2.2%, and three companies lost money: * Rite Aid, up 147% in 2003, fell 39% in 2004. * Pathmark Stores, a chain of supermarkets in the Northeast, was down 24% after rising 50% in 2003.
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Vodafone. The following report consists of The goods and services provided by Vodafone, The dynamics of Vodafones business with the help of Porters Five Forces, The current position and potential of Vodafone by SWOT
In increasingly competitive local markets where value for money is an important consideration, improving use of existing products and developing a range of new offerings for customers has helped the Group to continue to grow its total voice revenue. Pricing is an important factor for customers choosing a mobile phone network and is also important in encouraging usage of services whilst maximising revenue and margins. Two main pricing models exist in the mobile market - contract and prepaid. Contract customers are usually governed by a written contract and credit facilities are granted to them to enable access to mobile network services.
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A coach can't always perform the skills he teaches. There are three different leadership styles. Autocratic is when the leader makes the decision and tells everyone what he wants done. It is mainly used on a group that don't know each other. Democratic is when the group decide what to do and the leader will only interfere if the group are in risk of danger. This is used when a group know each other and can trust each other. Abdocratic is when the group and leader decide in a joint decision. It is used when a group know each other relatively well.
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Responsibility is when a leader accepts what they have done, either right or wrong, and will move productively afterwards. The Ancient Greeks believed that it wasn't the mistakes that happen during someone's life, but how they rectified the situation was what mattered. Everyone makes mistakes, especially when they are only new at what they are doing; like giving someone the wrong change when working at a fast-food shop. We still have to deal with the problem productively and not give up because of a few bumps in the road. Probably the greatest of Ancient Greek tragedies, King Oedipus, is a play by Sophocles about the King of Thebes.
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What do you understand by strategic management? Comment on the critical stages of analysis, choice and implementation. Use examples from your experience or the press to illustrate your answer.
Why this approach is often disputed, will be answered at the end. Analysis When the firm has specified its objectives, it starts to analyse its situation to create a strategic plan to reach those objectives. An environmental scan is done to identify the available opportunities. Changes in the external environment often present new opportunities and new ways to reach the objectives. The firm also must know its own capabilities and borders in order to choose the opportunities that it can pursue with a higher probability of success.
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Contingency theories of leadership were intended to resolve the problems of Trait and Behavioural theories. To what extend have they achieved this?
Lastly a leader knows the goals that he/she has to achieve, the aim of his/her work and has the 'power' to drive people to these and lead them to the goals they have to attain. Thus, this traditional definition of leadership shows in overall that a leader leads two or more people toward a particular end they all have to achieve. As Kevin and Jackie Freiberg put it, leadership is 'a dynamic relationship based on mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they affect real, intended change' (K.
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Such attributes give the leader a sense of self-assurance and instills confidence in current and potential followers. It also strengthens ones credibility with others. "The most effective leaders are able to both act and reflect which prepares them to manage for the long term." (Kets de Vries, 2004, para. 1) In addition, self-reflection is a good way to examine what is important and of interest to a leader. A leader must have insight to determine what key qualities an individual possesses. Emotional intelligence plays a very important role in exemplifying these characteristics. It also enables the leader to relate and identify shared competencies in others.
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This article examines the influence processes of upper echelon leaders, and influence processes at work with regard to three leaders Stanley Wang, Leslie Marks, and Joseph Hadad, in three diverse industries. One of the most significant determinants in managerial effectiveness is success in influencing people (Wright & Williams, 2005). Influence processes are imperative in comprehending how leaders inspire their subordinates dedication and extra effort, how decision are made within and for the organization, whether or not plan and guidelines were/ are implemented effectively, how managers obtain support form lateral peers they have no authority over, how superiors are influenced to
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entrants in the direct banking business * Customer acquisition strategy * Growth Strategies implemented to retain the competitive edge Comments Professor's comments * Is ING DIRECT success still linked in any way to ING's other business? And if so is it necessary to study these links? Teaching Assistant's comments * Well drafted/focused/to the point * Keeping study time in view, can(? hard to do) confine to one or two issues (may be helpful for an effective study) * Better to analyze "any inimitable/tightly coupled" strategies" 1.
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Whats facing Sunwinds managing director Lars Olov Larsson are the following problems: - How to tackle the capacity and quality problems? - Should the company implement JIT delivery? - How to work with Volvo to implement JI
More troubling is the fall from 10.9% EBITDA in 1983 of just over 9 million skr. Income Statements (Summary) (Skr 000) 9/1/84 to 8/31/85 9/1/83 to 8/31/84 9/1/82 to 8/31/83 Sales 102,092 57,693 84,783 Less: Manufacturing, selling and administrative expenses 98,136 54,321 75,696 Operating earnings before depreciation 3,956 3,372 9,087 Less: Depreciation 2,125 1,266 1,806 Interest Expense 1,347 785 1,327 484 1,321 5,954 Plus: Interest and nonoperating income 290 362 762 Net earnings before tax and allocations 774 1,683 6,716 There are undoubtedly many contributors to the drop off in profitability such as rise in materials costs and other common business challenges, but a significant portion of the business expense increases seem tied to inefficiencies at Sunwind as the company attempts to grow revenue on a new product such as Volvo's 700 series floor lids.
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(EPCglobal, by the way, has trademarked the term "Electronic Product Code.") These codes include details about the product, its size, and case count along with other identifiers, such as point of origin, producing factory, and production batch information. When a tagged case or pallet passes a reader, it transmits the product data to that reader, which then downloads it to a host computer, where it can be merged into a company's inventory management database (3). One of the key differences between RFID and barcode technology is that RFID eliminates the need for line-of-sight reading, which bar coding depends on. Also, RFID scanning can be done at greater distances than barcode scanning.
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It was first used in 1956 within the American company AT&T. It's said that those with high levels of EI have a positive outlook and those with positive outlooks perform better at their jobs. This is probably why companies would consider making applicants take the EI test in order to hire the most positive person to keep the company going with staff who perform well. It is said that EI has five characteristics which are self-awareness, mood management, self motivation, empathy and managing relationships.
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What factors contribute to make a good leader and how might your style of leadership vary to be successful when involved in individual, racket and team activities?
It suggests that leadership is contingent on the overall situation and is not only about personality. Consequently the success of leaders can depend on not only personality, but also on the activity being done and under what circumstances. There are three different styles of leadership. The first is the Autocratic leader; the autocratic leader takes control, dictates to the group what should be done and they make all the decisions. According to Chelladuri and Salesh's leadership scale for sports (1980), autocratic behavior is coaching behavior which involves independence in decision making and stresses personal authority (from the performer).The autocratic style of leadership is inflexible, very task orientated.
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What factors contribute to a good leader and how might your style of leadership vary to be successful when involved in individual, racket and team activities?
In an individual activity that is being done to an elite level such as a fifteen hundred metre running race the leader/coach should adopt more of a laissez faire style of leadership. A laissez faire leader can be defined as someone who "leaves the group to get on by themselves and generally plays a passive role. They do not interfere either by directing or co-ordinating." (Wesson et al, 2005). Laissez faire leadership should be adopted because all the athletes under leader/coaches command are experienced and should be disciplined and committed towards training.
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I need to describe the factors influencing the adoption of online payment in China. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Table of Contents 3 List of Figures 3 List of Tables 3 1. Introduction 4 2. Background to the Research Problem 4 3. Problem Definition 6 3.1 Management Problem 6 3.2 Research Problem 7 3.3 Research Objectives 7 4. Literature Review 7 4.1 Online Payment overview 8 4.1.1 E-commerce 8 4.1.2 Online Payment 8 4.1.3 Risk 8 4.2 Consumer attitude towards online payment 9 4.3 Diffusion of innovations' theory 9 5.
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Internal conflict happens within a person and may be caused by events such as assessments, work pressures or responsibilities. External conflict can occur between people and is usually the result of an incident or misunderstanding which leaves parties feeling uneasy with each other. Realistic conflict can be resolved because the parties are willing to communicate and negotiate, unrealistic conflict is not resolvable because the parties are not willing to change their mind or find common ground. Communication will not improve the situation as the parties will and can become hostile and ignore each other. Conflict Resolution Strategies 3 Although conflict is going to occur there are not many people comfortable with it.
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