Must women adopt male characteristics in order to succeed?
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Must Women Adopt Male Characteristics In Order To Succeed? This essay is will address the question of whether women must adopt male characteristics in order to succeed or not. Firstly, it will define what success actually is and demonstrate what the reality is for women. Secondly, it will argue for and against the adoption of male characteristics by analysing and comparing various studies, criticism and results. What do women need to do in order to succeed? Do they have to behave in a specific manner in order to be taken seriously? The evidence shows that women have recently been advanced to senior positions in large organisations (Wirth, 2001). However, they are still underrepresented in positions of authority within the public world of work compared to their male counterparts (White et al, 1992). Does that mean masculine style is what organisations are looking for in their leaders, and is it possible for a woman, displaying her 'female traits', to reach the top? What is success? In order to decide objectively what success is, we must first define what it means to ourselves as individuals, families and organisations. People are different. Their priorities are not the same. For example, the American world-renown motivational speaker Zig Zaglar says that ''success is only real when it encompasses every area of life - physical, mental, relationships, career and finances'' (Casey, 2008). In other words, true success requires balance between all these areas. In fact, we get closer and closer to real success as we fulfil more and more of our life purpose (A Successful Woman, 2010; Maslow, 1943).
For example, we can compare two female finalists of The Apprentice UK - a reality TV show in which young businessmen and women compete for an apprenticeship with the British business magnate Lord Sugar (Wikipedia, 2011). Series one runner-up Saira Khan - was criticised for being loud and forceful. Although she reached the final, her behaviour did not help her to win the job with Lord Sugar (The Apprentice UK, 2005). In contrast, the winner of series two - Michelle Dewberry - having the completely opposite behaviour - says in an interview that ''people do not need to be loud and cocky and ''bolshie'' - they just need to work as hard as they can, and hopefully they will get on in life'' (BBC News, 2006). Demonstrably, there are occasions when being feminine might be more beneficial than being masculine. Not only have masculine women been criticised and judged negatively, but also feminine women have been proven to be more effective. There is evidence to suggest that leaders displaying emotional and social intelligence are more likely to be outstanding performers and female leaders have been rated higher than men in this respect (Hopkins and Bilimoria, 2008). Another study of women and men at the organisational executive levels revealed that women outperform men in twenty-eight of thirty-one skill areas. Therefore, women have been proven to behave similarly but more effectively than their male colleagues (Perrault and Irwin, 1996). As a result, some organisations are willing to take further measures to have more females on the boardroom.
02, 2011). Pop V. (2011) ''Voluntary female quotas do not work - Norway says'' EU Observer, available at http://euobserver.com/851/32098 ( Last visited, Dec 03, 2011) Ramzy, N. (2002), "Arab women and labour: a study of three Arab societies", Journal of the Social Sciences, Vol. 30 pp.579-607. Rendell, M. (1980), "How many women academics?", in Dean, R. (Ed.), Schooling for Women's Work, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1912-1976 Rudman, L. A. (1998) ''Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and bene?ts of counterstereotypical impression management'' Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 629-645. Science Daily (2011) 'Macho' Women Face Backlash at Work, Researchers Find' http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119114954.htm (Last visited, Dec 02, 2011) Singh R. (2011) ''PwC join club to help women take board roles'' Accountancy age, 24 Oct - available at http://www.accountancyage.com/aa/news/2119485/pwc-join-club-help-women-board-roles (Last visited, 03 Dec, 2011) Stead, B. (1985), ''Women in Management'', 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Swiss, D. (t White, B., Cox, C. and Cooper, C.L. (1992), ''Women's Career Development. A Study of High-Flyers'', Blackwell, Oxford White B, Cox C, . Cooper C. L., (1997) "A portrait of successful women", Women In Management Review, Vol. 12 Iss: 1, pp.27 - 34 Wikipedia (2011) ''The Apprentice (UK TV Series)'', Wikimedia Foundation, Inc - available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Apprentice_(UK_TV_series)#Series_One (Last visited, Dec 03, 2011) Wintour P. (2011) ''Cameron says more women in the boardroom would help curb greed'', The Guardian, November 3rd - available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2011/nov/03/cameron-women-boardroom-curb-greed ( Last visited, Dec 04, 2011) Wirth, L. (2001), ''Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management,'' ILO, Geneva, Wolfe L. (2009) ''Why More Women Should Hold Senior Management Positions'' Women in Business, available at http://womeninbusiness.about.com/od/womeninbusinessnew1/a/women-profits.htm (Last visited Dec 03, 2011) ?? ?? ?? ?? KATYA VARBANOVA - 200730017 MKIB227 - Women in Management - 2011/2012 Page 1
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