• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Poverty and Inequality in Ecuador

Extracts from this document...


Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Student ID: w15005765 Country: Ecuador Topic: Poverty and Inequality Committee: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Poverty is a circumstance often described as a non-existing type of resource required to satisfy essential needs such as food, shelter and health (Goulden. and D?Arcy. 2014). Ecuador is a relatively poor country with a national poverty ratio in 2015 measuring at 23.3% of the population living under the poverty line. In 2007, 36.7% of the population were living in poverty, by 2016 this number had decreased to 22.9% (World Bank, 2017). The poverty rate is affected by the unstable political, economical and unequal environment of Ecuador. Inequality in Ecuador it is caused by ethnical differences between white, mestizo, indigenous and Afro-Ecuadorian groups, the last ones? accounting for most cases of unequal treatment. The issue of inequality between the population is the hard access to education and health care by the communities. (Nopo, H. 2012). Crude oil export has been an essential part of Ecuador?s past and present economy, rapid decrease in international oil prices and earthquakes has weakened Ecuador?s economy, reducing its exports by half in 1987. ...read more.


The more significant inequality in the labour market has led to contraction of middle class and a widening gap between the higher and lower class (Larrea, C. Kawachi, I. 2004). The Ecuadorian government has aimed in the past and present to reduce poverty, inequality and increase economic growth. It has targeted to attract foreign investment into the country by establishing financial, regulatory and institutional reforms and creating a more transparent fair fiscal system. The government has increased its spending in health and education system using from oil exports (Weisbrot, 2017). The educational reform has helped population by increasing the number of schools and bilingual academic staff which has increased the number of children accessing education. Tax reform has also helped the publics spending and reduced inequality while reforms in health have led to a rise in health facilities and ease of access by individuals (Oxfam, 2013). According to Cevallos-Lopez, D, F. and Chi, C. (2010), there are still issues regarding the distribution of health care and education, individuals still being considered by their economic and ethnic status. ...read more.


Retrieved October 18, 2017, from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2004/wp0412.pdf Martinez, A, I and Cobb, J, S. (2016 April 17). Ecuador quake toll climbs over 400, damage put at billions of dollars. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-ecuador-quake/ecuador-quake-toll-climbs-over-400-damage-put-at-billions-of-dollars-idUKKCN0XE007 Nopo, H. (2012). New century, old disparities. Gender and ethnic earnings gaps in Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved October 18, 2017, from https://books.google.co.uk/books Student ID: w17005765 Oxfam. (2013). Development finance and inequality. Good practice in Ecuador, Rwanda and Thailand. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/cs-inequality-development-finance-050813-en.pdf Statista. (2017). Ecuador: Distribution of employment by economic sector from 2005 to 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2017, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/451313/employment-by-economic-sector-in-ecuador/ The Economist. (2000). Desperation in Ecuador. Retrieved October 19, 2017, from http://www.economist.com/node/273105 The World Bank. (2017). GINI index (World Bank estimate). Retrieved October 19, 2017, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?locations=EC The World Bank. (2017). The world bank in Ecuador. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ecuador/overview Wesibrot, M. (2017, February 14). Ecuador?s Left-Wing success story. Ecuador has cut poverty by 38 percent, increased spending on education and healthcare, and raised per capita income. Retrieved October 28, 2017, from https://www.thenation.com/article/ecuadors-left-wing-success-story/ Weisbrot, M. (2017, February 14). Ecuador?s Left-Wing success story. Success depended on major institutional reforms, financial and regulation, and smart policy choices. Retrieved October 28, 2017, from https://www.thenation.com/article/ecuadors-left-wing-success-story/ ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Political & International Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Political & International Economics essays

  1. HSBC and the Argentine Peso Crisis

    In the firm's external environment, the political consequences of the government's lax FISCAL POLICY resulted in gross misspending of national funds, the DEBT FACTOR and resulting default of public debt and lapsed loan payments taken out on HSBC holdings. Secondly, while the CONVERTIBILITY PLAN initially resulted in increased growth for

  2. Mercantile system.

    Luxury items are to be avoided because they took money out of the economy unnecessarily. State action was needed to regulate and enforce the above policies. One might add that there was nothing logical or consistent about mercantilism and that it displayed, in fact, enormous variation.

  1. Impacts of IMF and World Bank to the Development of Vietnam.

    In the decade after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975 the economy deteriorated. Vietnam was not growing enough rice under collectivized agriculture to feed itself. In 1986 Vietnam had to import 1.5 million tons of rice and starvation conditions were prevalent.

  2. Causes of poverty - examining the problems of former colonies and possible solutions.

    These problems are so pressing that they not perpetuate poverty but also pass on the same phenomenon to successive generations (World Bank, 2005). Causes of poverty: Most of the under developed countries in the Latin American, Asian and African regions have one thing in common, that is, they were colonies

  1. Pharma industry in Latin America

    From this comparative table of demographic trends it is already evident that this region is registering a rapid aging of its population as it is said by Robles. In the year 2000 there was on average 6.8% (or 20,829,000 people)

  2. What were the main causes of the East Asian financial crisis?

    ASEAN - the Association of East Asian Nations - is one group around which some studies are based1. Some literature refers to 'Tiger Economies' - this is quite a trivial term and often lacks definition. Other groupings refer to 'East Asia'; 'Newly Industrialised Countries' or 'High Performing Asian Economies', without detailing which countries these definitions refer to.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work