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The development of tourism and its importance to the economic development of Kenya

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MENDEL UNIVERSITY IN BRNO Faculty of Regional Development and International Studies The development of tourism and its importance to the economic development of Kenya Bachelor Thesis Author: Romana JedliÄková Supervisor: Ing. Samuel Antwi Darkwah, Ph.D. Brno 2010 ________________ Declaration I declare that I have worked out this bachelor thesis individually by using literature sources mentioned in the list of literature. Brno, May 18, 2011 ………………………………………. ________________ Acknowledgement I would like to thank very much my supervisor, Ing. Samuel Antwi Darkwah, Ph.D., for his valuable advices and helpful recommendations. Also I would like to thank my family for their tolerance while writing the thesis. ________________ Abstract JedliÄková, R. The Development of Tourism and its Importance to the Economic Development of Kenya. Thesis. Brno, 2011 The aim of this Bachelor Thesis is to analyze the development of tourism in Kenya for the last five years (2005 – 2010). The analysis will concentrate on the importance of tourism to the economic development of Kenya and its contribution to the gross domestic product as a foreign exchange earner and the welfare effects on the citizens of Kenya for the observed period. Key words Kenya, Tourism, Development, Economic Growth Abstrakt JedliÄková, R. Rozvoj cestovního ruchu a jeho význam na ekonomický rozvoj v Keni. BakaláÅská práce. Brno, 2011 Cílem této bakaláÅské práce je analyzovat rozvoj cestovního ruchu v Keni za posledních pÄt let (2005 – 2010). Analýza se zamÄÅí na význam cestovního ruch a ekonomického rozvoje Keni, její podíl na hrubém domácím produktu jako devizy a její prospÄch na keÅské obyvatele v pozorovaném období. KlíÄová slova KeÅa, cestovní ruch, rozvoj, ekonomický růst ________________ Table of Content Table of Content 1. Introduction 2. Literature Overview 2.1. Definition of Tourism 2.1.1 Tourism 2.1.2 Tourism demand 2.1.3 Factors influencing demand in the tourist-generating area Economic determinants Social determinants Government tax policies and controls on tourist spending 2.1.4 The tourist profile Socio-economic characteristics of tourists Behavioral characteristics of tourists 2.1.5 Tourism Typologies 2.1.6 Sustainable development in the context of tourism 2.2 Measuring economic ...read more.


Mathieson and Wall (1982) state that socio-cultural impacts are? about the effects on the people of host communities, of their direct and indirect associations with tourists?. Lea (1988 outlines the dimensions of tourist-host encounters and provides a useful starting point from which to define social and cultural aspects. Sharply (1994) states that from a social and cultural perspective, the rapid extension of tourism is important in two respects: 1. The development of tourism as a vehicle for economic modernization and diversification almost invariably leads to changes and developments in the structure of society. These may be positive and negative. In the positive sense, there may be society wide improvements in income, employment opportunities, education, local infrastructure and services. On the negative side, there may be a threat posed to traditional social values, the creation of factions of society who may take advantages of others and adaptation or weakening of cultural values. 2. All tourists, to a lesser or greater extent, inevitably take on holiday their own benefits, values and behavioral modes: what may be termed cultural baggage. Cohen (1972) states that people tend to travel in an environmental bubble (see Murphy 1985:6). Therefore, the scope for mixing of cultures is great. This gives rise to two ideas about the socio-cultural effect of tourism. First, that the interaction between host and guest could dilute or destroy traditional cultures. This reflects the literature that considers tourism primarily as a threat to culture and peoples. Second, that the interaction between host and guest could create new opportunities for peace and greater understanding. 1. Factors influencing socio-cultural impacts Having explored the general context, it is now apposite to consider the range of factors which influence the nature and extent of socio-cultural impacts. Sharply (1994) outlines four factors which shape the effects. 1. Types and numbers of tourists 1. Importance of the tourism industry 2. Size and development of the tourism industry 3. ...read more.


Tourism employment plays also role within Kenya’s economy. Working places available from tourism are mostly within travel agencies, hotels, airports, marine recreation, infrastructure and also working positions created within Ministry of Tourism. Jobs are mainly created in regions with attractive supply as in Nairobi, national parks, costal area with western – based hotels etc. Spatial division is not in favor with other parts of the country where many people suffer from unemployment and poverty, and are unable to travel long distances to get a job. In other words tourism employment is highly seasonal and dependable on tourism arrivals. However in provinces where the tourism supply is demanded, the share of jobs available is significant. Undoubtedly, many jobs in the country are given to foreign people, as long as foreign investors build holiday complexes, so it is convenient to raise a question if tourism truly contributes as much in developing employment opportunities for locals. Real share of foreign and local people employed in sector wasn´t unfortunately available. International tourism expenditure makes a great deal of income of the country, people mostly from OECD countries come to visit Kenya and spend their money on leisure and business purposes. Real share of earned income will rise with more people coming to Kenya to spend their money for tourist’s packages. Average money spent by tourist per day has risen up, so Kenya should sustain growth through years by sustaining its wide range of resources, maintain its attractiveness for western countries and finally establish improvements in infrastructure. Betterment of infrastructure can help increase number of arrivals to the country. Added value can contribute to spatial dispersion and mobility through all country. Standards set by improvement can also higher potential of remoter localities in Kenya which haven’t been exploited much so far. Kenya high literacy rate could lead to sustainability of their regions by learning from OECD countries that create relevant share of Kenya present day tourism supply. However process of sustainable development won’t be fulfilled sooner than Kenyans enhance their own political stability and peace in country. ________________ 1. ...read more.

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