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´╗┐THE EFFECT TQM HAS ON EMPLOYEES AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORE IN THE UK. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This is an introduction to the research topic. This chapter aims to present the research ideas and its motives. It introduces the topic, which is the effect of total quality management on employees (TQM) giving a brief description of the research and the major themes adopted for this study purpose. The chapter begins first by stating the background of the study, second a statement of the research problem would establish the reason for the study. Third, the aims and objectives of the study are given; fourth, the questions which have remained unanswered by previous research and which the present study seeks to address will be stated. The chapter then concludes with a brief outline of the major elements contained in the other chapters of the research work. The dissertation looks at the impact of TQM on employees and management. 1. Background of the Study Total quality management (TQM) has been defined as an organisational effort incorporated in intent to improve the quality of performance at every level. TQM as defined by the International Organization for Standards (ISO, "is a management approach for an organization, centred on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization and to society." ISO 8402:1994 (citied in Singh and Dhalla, 2010). TQM necessitate that organisations maintain quality standard in the overall aspect of its business. It ensures that things are done right the first time and eliminates waste and defects from organisational operations (Hashmi 2010). While HRM practices involves the overall organisational quality planning, training and personnel development, quality of work life and is intended for customer satisfaction, the main purpose of TQM is managing performance and also acts as a system that maintain unvarying organisational improvement. ...read more.


This aspect believes that human resource are significant and should be trained on knowledge and performance as there are the main force of a multifaceted business environment. (Oltra (2005), Tari et al. (2006)). The employees are trained and empowered to make decision based on their judgement on things that they can control This is one way of satisfying internal suppliers and not only does it reduce the burden of the supervisor shift responsibility for quality control from specific departments to all employees which can motivate employees ?internal suppliers? to do better job. This allows total quality management to move from a centralized to a decentralized approach to control. 3. Fact Based Decision Making: decision must be made only on data and not situational thinking or past experiences. In making decisions, an organisation can adopt SPC (Statistical Process Control) which involves the application of statistics to analyse data, study and measures the performance process to identify common and special causes of variation in the performance process. Other statistical data can be used like: FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) to detect all possible failures in a process and study the consequences of such failures. DOE (Design of Experiment) and the 7 statistical tools. When making decisions, organisation has to follow a pattern Source: http://goldpractice.thedacs.com/practices/spc/index.php (2011). 1. Continuous Improvement: it is important for organisation to continually improve in all aspect of their work from strategic planning to decision making , to detailed execution of the work element as what may be considered as an exceptional performance today may be classified as unacceptable in the future. In order not to be outperformed by competitors, organisations have to use the concept of process improvement to attain both breakthrough gains and continuous improvement. Continuous improvement does not involve end results alone but also more importantly to potential to produce better results in the future. It focuses on 5 major areas for capability improvement which are demand generation, supply generation, technology, operations and people capability. ...read more.


Also, the study is not just an observation of the existing phenomena on the topic but goes beyond that to a significant appraisal of any observations. Both the exploratory and explanatory research purposes have been deemed inappropriate for this study and this is why the research adopted a descriptive research method. 1. Ethical Issues The researcher consulted the manager of the company before and during the research study. Ethical issues were considered during the course of the research. Cooper and Schindler(2008) explain that ethics are the standards or norms of behaviour that guide researchers of their behaviour and connection with others researchers and participants. The methods used during the collection of data were followed in order to obey the rules of the data protection act 1998 and strict accordance to the company law and policy. In order to take into consideration the ethical issues, informed consent was required from all participants. Participants were notifies that the interview was voluntary but necessary to provide a true demonstration of hoe implementation of TQM practices affects employees performances, a letter was sent to participants stating the purpose of the research and to informed them of their rights prior to the administration and those who agreed to the terms were requested to participate in the interviews. Participants will remain anonymous and the outcomes of the research will be available for all involved to read. All data collected was stored in a safe place to ensure confidentiality. 1. Summary This chapter addressed the research methodology conducted, including the reasons for selecting a qualitative research approach, the research process, data collection and analysis, and concerns related to the limitations of the research, ethical considerations were also discussed in this chapter, and conclusions and recommendations given by the researcher will be based on the result findings and finally the reliability and credibility of the research. The following chapter, chapter 4, will present the findings of the interviews and include a discussion of these findings. ...read more.

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