The following Statement of Relevance logbook is concerned with looking at people and organisation within the construction industry and how the two phenomena affect the role of the project manager.
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Introductions The following Statement of Relevance logbook is concerned with looking at people and organisation within the construction industry and how the two phenomena affect the role of the project manager. The areas that I will look at are: * Objective, policies and ethics. * The construction industry and its people. * Human resource management. * Organisations and their structures. * Classic and modern day organisational theories. * Managing project teams and the team work involved throughout organisations. * Delegation and motivation throughout the organisation. * Authority, power and leadership that influence the people within an organisation. * And, some Models in decision making in the organisation. All of the above areas relate strongly to theories of organisations and the people that make the organisations up. There are many argued points that I discuss in the statements, that give insight into the different goings on in the organisation, and how people relate to one another to achieve productive work, and how a project manager, manages a team efficiently. Statement of Relevance One Objectives, Policies and Organisational Ethics From the dictionary of English Language and Culture, Aim: noun 1) Something that you intend to do or achieve. 2) E.g. the company is aiming for a 25% increase in profit. Objective: The dictionary also recognises as similar to the description of an aim, but it really constitutes the steps one must overcome to fulfil the aim. Strategy is what must be achieved and policy is the framework within which the activities will be conducted (Torrington, Weightman, Jones. 1989 People and Organisation.) People and their values implement how a strategy is implemented. "Corporate Strategy is... concerned with what people want organisations to do... the aspirations, expectations, attitudes and personal philosophies which people hold."(Johnson and Scholes, 1984 pg16) Strategy is affected by the aspirations and expectations of that inside and outside. Customers and employees affect the strategy.
* Recognition. Acknowledgement of employee's contribution increases output. * Social interaction. Workers that can select their working environment to a certain extent tended to perform better. * Grievances. Scope for employees to air their grievances. * The Hawthorne Effect. Novelty of working arrangements due to changes and workers being at the centre of attention led to improved performance. This was discovered due to the confusion of the Hawthorne Studies. Sourced from: Torrington, D. Weightman, J. Johns, K. Effective Management - People and Organisation. Prentic Hall. (1989) The Human Relations approach has certain criticisms, such as it being insufficiently scientific and that it takes too narrow a view of the role of the organisation and society. Therefore into the 1950's and 1960's came along further theorists who adopted more psychological orientation, it is known as the Neo - Human Relations theories. Maslow (1943), put forward the theory of workers of having a hierarchy of human needs (see lecture notes). Herzberg and McGregor, are also best-known contributors to the neo - human approach. Herzberg theory, contained the hygiene and maintenance factors, which are concerned with the job environment. McGregor held the famous view of Theory X and Theory Y. Where the style of management adopted is a function of the managers attitudes towards human nature and behaviour at work. Statement of Relevance Six Managing Project Teams and Team Work Initially when working in teams, the task that the group has to achieve and the processes by which it is done has to be understood. Also the degree of involvement that the individual people have with one and other affects the team at work. Teams can at times be seen as a bad thing or a good thing. They can work slowly yet they can also work fast. If a problem to be faced is unfamiliar, teams are likely to perform better. Whereas if the problem faced is common and understood, then individuals usually work more effectively.
Decision making writers have seeked to explain the ways in which conflicts are resolved and choices are made. The leading writers in the decision making approach include, Barnard, Simon, Cyert and March. Barnard, believed in co-operative action throughout an organisation. People should communicate and have common commitment and contribution to achieve what is commonly required. This in turn would lead to a co-operative system within the organisation. Simon, developed the theory in that he saw management as a decision making process, and wished to establish how the decision-making can be improved. He failed to see that man is completely rational and was content in seeing an administrative decision making process where man 'satisfices' rather than 'maximises'. Administrative decision-making is the achievement of satisfactory rather than optimal results in solving problems. Conclusions The nine areas of relevance all paint a very descriptive picture of organisations of old and new, and managerial theories also of old and new. There has been over the years a number of changes that a project manger has had to face and adjust to in order to have reliable organisations, as free as possible for disruptions and unavoidable changes. In general I have learnt that these changes have occurred in areas of, Ethics within the organisation, The people and relationships within an organisation, How people are managed effectively within an organisation, The basic theories of the whole organisation, How people are not only managed, but also how they are influenced within the organisation. There has been without a doubt over the last 20 - 40 years great emphasis put upon the people in an organisation rather than the organisation itself. This in a variety of ways been a good and a bad thing. The underlying factor that I found throughout the topics is the debate between control of the organisation in order to see the worker perform at a steady rate, and allowing the worker to be comfortable and perform at his/her own pace. Both arguments have there positive factors and in modern organisations you find a combination of the two ideas in practice.
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