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THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON JOB STRESS AND TURNOVER INTENTION TAIWAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY AS AN EXAMPLE

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Introduction

THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON JOB STRESS AND TURNOVER INTENTION - TAIWAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY AS AN EXAMPLE ABSTRACT For recent years, Taiwan has stepped into an aging society. Life insurance and retirement planning which have quite a lot to do with insurance industry are questions of interest. The insurance industry focuses on close contact among clients, sales people and managers. That is a human-oriented industry, for which the experienced leaders inspire the sales people through continuous training and encouragement and lead them by vision. Therefore, leader's leadership type is the critical factor for the success of the organization. This research explores the relationships among leader's leadership style, subordinate's personality characteristic, and job stress and turnover intention. We also identify the role of the variable of personality characteristic and job stress respectively. We use convenient sampling method to collect data. In pretest, 50 copies of questionnaires are sent to employees of M insurance company, for which 46 valid ones are returned, And then, a total of 220 copies of questionnaires are sent out, of which 176 returned questionnaires are valid. The effective response rate is at 80%. We adopt SPSS to do data analysis and draw conclusions as follows:(1) Leadership style has significant influence on job stress; (2) Job stress has positive relationship with turnover intention; (3) Leadership style has negative influence of turnover intention; (4) Personality characteristic has no moderating effect on the relationship between leadership style and job stress; (5) Personality characteristic brings no moderating effect on the relationship between job stress and turnover intention; (6) Job stress has mediation effect on the relationship between leadership style and turnover intention. Keywords:Leadership Style, Job Stress, Personality Characteristic, Turnover Intention. INTRODUCTION For recent years, Taiwan has stepped into an aging society. Life insurance and retirement planning that have quite a lot to do with insurance are questions of interest. The insurance industry focuses on close contact and interaction among clients, sales people and managers. ...read more.

Middle

The turnover rate of life insurance salesmen keeps high because of such job compensation without base pay and suffering from heavy stress that is hard to be accepted by the people. The experienced leader is well aware of this fact and keeps training, assisting and inspiring the sales personnel. Therefore, the leader's leadership style is very important for the performance achievement of organization. Therefore, we have a great interest in exploring the relationships among leadership style, personality characteristic, job stress and turnover intention. This research also tries to identify the role of variable for personality characteristic and job stress respectively. Framework of this research is shown as Figure1. Fig 1 Research framework Research Hypotheses If the organization intends to keep outperforming in the violently competitive environment, leadership is the most influential factor. The objective of this research is to explore the relationships among leadership style and salespeople job stress and turnover intention and the role of personality characteristic and job stress respectively. We learn from the above literatures that the leader's leadership style has significant influence on the staff's job stress and turnover intention. Thus, this research develops following hypothesis based on the research framework: Different leadership style has different impact on the subordinate's work willingness. The leader's ability to adapt to internal and external environmental change and lead a group of cordial subordinates fighting together is one of the keys to success. Hsu (1986) conducts research on 222 operators of China Steel Company in Kaohsiung on the relationship among leader's personality characteristic, the leader behavior, the staff's job stress and job satisfaction. The research indicated that consideration leadership had significantly negative connection with job stress, but the initiating structure positively connected with job stress, the leadership style and job stress are negatively connected. Hence, we develop hypotheses as below: H1 Leadership style has significant influence on job stress H1a Transformational leadership has negative influence on job stress H1b Transactional leadership has positive influence on job stress Job stress is usually generated along with change of productivity such as passive job involvement, indifference to colleagues, envy and suspicion, efficiency drop, job absence, turnover, etc. ...read more.

Conclusion

Jamal, M. 1990. Relationship of job stress and type- A behavior to employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychosomatic health problem and turnover motivation, Human Relations, 43(8), 715-733. Lin, Shu-Feng. 2002. The relationships of personality traits, organizational commitment and flow experience: an exploratory study on the female health care volunteers in Chang-hua County. Department of Leisure and Recreation. Da-Yeh University. Margolis, B.L., Krose, W.H. & Ownn, R.P. 1974. Job stress an unlisted occupational hazard, Journal of Occupational Medicine, 16, 245-258. Maslow, A.H. 1954. A theory of human motivation, Psychological Review, 50, 370~396. Mobley, W.H. 1977. Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover, Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 237-240. Mobley, W.H. 1978. An evaluation of precursors of employee turnover, Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4), 405-421. Mobley, W.H., Horner, S.O.& Hollingsworth, A.T. 1978. An evaluation of precursors of hospital employee turnover, Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4), 408-414. Mobley, W.H., Griffeth,R.W., Hand,H.H.& Meglino, B.M.1979. Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process, Psychological Bulletin, 86(4), 493-522. Morphet, E.L., Johns, R.L. & Reller, T.L. 1982. Educational organization and administration, New Jersey:Prentice- Hall. Parasuraman, S.& Alutto, J.A 1984.. Sources of outcomes of stress in organization settings:Toward the development of a structural model, Academy of Management Journal, 27(2), 330-350. Porter, L.W., Steers,R.M., Mowday, R.T.& Boulian,P.V. 1974. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians, Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609. Price, J.L.& . Mueller C.W. 1977. Absenteeism and turnover of hospital employees, Greenwich, CT:JAI Press, 218-223. Robbins, S.P. 1993. Organization behavior, New Jersey:Prentice- Hall. Scott, W.G.. 1974. Management in the modern organization, Boston:Houghton Mifflin. Selye, H. 1956. The stress of llfe, New York:McGraw- Hill Book. Stogdill, R.M. 1974. Handbook of leadership:A survey of the literature, New York:Free Press. Stogdill, R.M.& Coons, A.E. 1957. Leader behavior it's description and measurement, Ohio :Bureau of Business Research ,The Ohio State University, 88, 1-27. Wei, Chin-Yin. 2004. The study of the relationship among insurance salesperson's emotional labor, psychological contract and employee turnover. Department of Labor Realtion and Institudeof Labor Studies. National Chung Cheng University. Yukl, G.A. 1994. Leadership in organizations, Englewood Cliffs, New Jerseys:Prentice- Hall. ...read more.

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