The Journey from solar energy to a geography textbook

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01/24/03 Suzana Zayed The Journey from solar energy to a geography textbook Many natural and synthetic resources go into the making a textbook. Since textbooks are made mostly of paper that in turn is made primarily of wood (biosphere), I will first consider the resources that help produce trees. A tree gets minerals (pedosphere) such as nitrate and phosphate salts from the soil, as well as from water (hydrosphere). The water also provides it with a solution in which salts can dissolve and are carried around the trees. Trees also need air (atmosphere) because it provides them with carbon dioxide that is essential for photosynthesis, the process during which plants produce their own food - glucose that can be stored as starch and used for growth.


can be utilized. The ship also uses rubber (biosphere) so that the does not hit the quay, plastic (lithosphere) for insulation from static electricity that can cause a fire due to sparks from friction with the sailors' shoes, petrol for fueling the ship, and hemp (biosphere) for the anchor's rope. Alternatively, a raft made of wood and ropes can be used to carry the wood downstream. If the trees are to be transported by land, we can use either the railway or trucks. If the railway is used, we will be using wood and steel for the railway tracks. If the timber is transported on roads, we should remember that those are made of rocks (lithosphere)


that use water vapor, heated by fossil fuels (lithosphere) are used to dry the sheets. Clay (pedosphere) can be used to coat the paper and make it smoother. Electric cutters then cut the sheets of paper into the desired textbook size. The print on the paper can be achieved using different types of ink. This could be either biodegradable ink that is soy-based (biosphere) and also contains vegetable oils or non-biodegradable, synthetic, pigment-based one that contains petroleum, and hence easily adheres to the paper. Waxy substances may be used for the paper on the cover as this would make it glossier and hence more appealing to the buyers. Finally, the printed pages are clued together using an adhesive, and placed in cardboard boxes for transportation and storage before we buy them and use them in our GEOG 2250H class.

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