• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The relationship between levels of intrinsic motivation and perception of parental pressure in junior tennis teams.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The relationship between levels of intrinsic motivation and perception of parental pressure in junior tennis teams. Abstract The purpose of this study was to test whether parental pressure affects the level of intrinsic motivation in junior tennis players. Junior tennis players (N=20; 10 male, 10 female) with a mean age of 12.2 years (standard deviation = 0.6 years). Subjects were presented with two short questionnaires one designed to measure the levels of intrinsic motivation and one designed to measure their perceived level of intrinsic motivation. A dependent Pearson product moment correlation coefficient test's results revealed that there was a significance level of 0.01. The results suggested that the higher the level of parental pressure the child felt the lower their level of intrinsic motivation would be. Implications include the need to warn parents that pressurising their children can make sport less enjoyable for them. Introduction Relationship between levels of intrinsic motivation and perception of parental pressure. On experiencing competition between individuals and noticing differences in their attitudes towards competition. Individuals tend to search for causes of this difference. One approach to examining the "attitudes" individuals have towards competition and their motivation for competing is White's (1959, Cited in Orbach, Singer & Price, 1999) effectance motivation theory. White suggested that 'effectance motivation' was based around the desire to feel competent; this impels individuals towards competetency. ...read more.

Middle

with a mean age of 12.2 years (standard deviation = 0.6 years). The participants had been competing at this level of competition for an average of 3.4 years (standard deviation = 0.3 years). It is possible that by using sports students it is possible the results could bear resemblance to a larger sample of elite athletes. Materials The materials for this study consisted of the twenty questionnaire sheets that the participants were asked to complete in order to work out their levels of parental pressure and their levels of intrinsic motivation. To measure intrinsic motivation for tennis they completed 12 items of the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier et al., 1995) that are specifically designed to assess intrinsic motivation. Children were presented with the stem "Why do you take part in tennis?" and responded to each of the 12 items on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all true) through 7 (extremely true). Children were given an average intrinsic motivation score by adding their responses to the twelve items and dividing this total by 12. To measure perceptions of parental pressure children completed five items from White et al.'s (1992) Parent Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire that were deemed to assess parental pressure. Specifically, children responded to the five items on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all true) ...read more.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that there is a need to facilitate intrinsic motivation in sport by making training and targets personal to individuals that are more task involved than ego involved, (e.g. Nicholls, 1984), rather than judging everybody by the same standard. One way to do this and help reduce parental pressure is: within organised sports groups for youngsters have regular meetings with the parents warning them of the implications of pressurising their children, and perhaps the results of studies like this one. The results of this study, however, must be viewed with caution. Although the results revealed a significant correlation, and the implications are potentially meaningful, the data was generated only through the use of one small questionnaire with only 24 questions all together including both sections. Future research needs to be conducted to examine whether this principal holds true when the results are gathered in other methods too. For example interview with the parents and athletes, as well as observing parents when watching their children compete. Furthermore, Nicholls' (1984, cited in Orbach et al., 1999) achievement goal theory requires further investigation and research to examine how positive reinforcement and feedback can effect how a child perceives their ability in sport. Examining ways to give young children positive feedback from sport would certainly enhance sport psychologists' ability to facilitate successful performances. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Human Resource Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Human Resource Management essays

  1. Motivation. The purpose of this brief paper is to explore the main variables affecting ...

    to that there is effect and correlation between the independent variables and the dependent, which give us more information to reject the Null Hypothesis and to accept the Alternate Hypothesis. Coefficients Meanings: From the Beta Coefficients we can express the nature of the relation (positive or negative relation from the sign of the coefficients)

  2. The nature of motivation.

    view motivational force as a multiplicative function of two key variables: expectancies and valences. "Expectancies" were seen by Lewin (1938) and Tolman (1959) as beliefs individuals had that particular actions on their part would lead to certain outcomes. "Valence" denoted the amount of positive or negative value placed by an individual.

  1. Managing project teams has plenty of theories, from motivational theories to types of teams ...

    . the study also identifies 9 team roles. These were identified as the plant, the monitor evaluator, co-ordinators, the resource investigators, the implementers, the completer finishers, the teamworkers, the shapers, and the specialist. Each of these individuals plays a specific role in the team.

  2. Concept of Motivation & its Theories

    in the market place. We are also influenced by colleagues, friends, partners in establishing these benchmarks and our own responses to them in relation to our own ratio of inputs to outputs. Inputs are typically: effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, heart and soul, enthusiasm,

  1. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

    For example: family, work group, etc. * Esteem Needs: The needs that are second from the top on the Maslow's hierarchy of needs are the esteem needs of a person which is the need to establish a high status and to be respected in addition to being appreciated for one's work and/or contribution.

  2. Employee Motivation. Case Study of the incentive schemes at the Jodhpur branch of ...

    BASIC FEATURES OF ONGC > Company's vision & mission. > Objectives of the company. > Rajasthan forward base, Jodhpur. > Major Achievement Of ONGC > Different Working Condition. > Organizational .setup of ONGC > Globalization. VISION OF ONGC To be world class Oil & Gas Company Integrated in energy business with dominant Indian leadership and global presence.

  1. 'In what ways, and to what extent do males and females have different experiences ...

    STUDIES 13 (3): 403-427 1992 Abstract: This study examines the processes underlying gender discrimination in a large Australian government research organization. It is specifically concerned with discrimination that occurs after the initial assignment of employees to career streams or ladders has occurred.

  2. The various needs and expectations of work can be categorised in a number of ...

    objectives set at the start of the process - A Clear commitment to training throughout all levels of the company Implementation of the above will increase confidence, motivation and commitment of staff. Staff will also feel a sense of recognition, and enhanced responsibility as well as personal satisfaction and achievement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work