• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The relationship between levels of intrinsic motivation and perception of parental pressure in junior tennis teams.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The relationship between levels of intrinsic motivation and perception of parental pressure in junior tennis teams. Abstract The purpose of this study was to test whether parental pressure affects the level of intrinsic motivation in junior tennis players. Junior tennis players (N=20; 10 male, 10 female) with a mean age of 12.2 years (standard deviation = 0.6 years). Subjects were presented with two short questionnaires one designed to measure the levels of intrinsic motivation and one designed to measure their perceived level of intrinsic motivation. A dependent Pearson product moment correlation coefficient test's results revealed that there was a significance level of 0.01. The results suggested that the higher the level of parental pressure the child felt the lower their level of intrinsic motivation would be. Implications include the need to warn parents that pressurising their children can make sport less enjoyable for them. Introduction Relationship between levels of intrinsic motivation and perception of parental pressure. On experiencing competition between individuals and noticing differences in their attitudes towards competition. Individuals tend to search for causes of this difference. One approach to examining the "attitudes" individuals have towards competition and their motivation for competing is White's (1959, Cited in Orbach, Singer & Price, 1999) effectance motivation theory. White suggested that 'effectance motivation' was based around the desire to feel competent; this impels individuals towards competetency. ...read more.

Middle

with a mean age of 12.2 years (standard deviation = 0.6 years). The participants had been competing at this level of competition for an average of 3.4 years (standard deviation = 0.3 years). It is possible that by using sports students it is possible the results could bear resemblance to a larger sample of elite athletes. Materials The materials for this study consisted of the twenty questionnaire sheets that the participants were asked to complete in order to work out their levels of parental pressure and their levels of intrinsic motivation. To measure intrinsic motivation for tennis they completed 12 items of the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier et al., 1995) that are specifically designed to assess intrinsic motivation. Children were presented with the stem "Why do you take part in tennis?" and responded to each of the 12 items on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all true) through 7 (extremely true). Children were given an average intrinsic motivation score by adding their responses to the twelve items and dividing this total by 12. To measure perceptions of parental pressure children completed five items from White et al.'s (1992) Parent Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire that were deemed to assess parental pressure. Specifically, children responded to the five items on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all true) ...read more.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that there is a need to facilitate intrinsic motivation in sport by making training and targets personal to individuals that are more task involved than ego involved, (e.g. Nicholls, 1984), rather than judging everybody by the same standard. One way to do this and help reduce parental pressure is: within organised sports groups for youngsters have regular meetings with the parents warning them of the implications of pressurising their children, and perhaps the results of studies like this one. The results of this study, however, must be viewed with caution. Although the results revealed a significant correlation, and the implications are potentially meaningful, the data was generated only through the use of one small questionnaire with only 24 questions all together including both sections. Future research needs to be conducted to examine whether this principal holds true when the results are gathered in other methods too. For example interview with the parents and athletes, as well as observing parents when watching their children compete. Furthermore, Nicholls' (1984, cited in Orbach et al., 1999) achievement goal theory requires further investigation and research to examine how positive reinforcement and feedback can effect how a child perceives their ability in sport. Examining ways to give young children positive feedback from sport would certainly enhance sport psychologists' ability to facilitate successful performances. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Human Resource Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Human Resource Management essays

  1. Motivation. The purpose of this brief paper is to explore the main variables affecting ...

    This led us to reject the Null Hypothesis and accept the Alternate Hypothesis. From Anova results, we see that the calculated Significant is equal to 000.0, and this is less than the 0.05 (which means 95% level of confidence as a standard of our study), this means and assure us

  2. Managing project teams has plenty of theories, from motivational theories to types of teams ...

    . the study also identifies 9 team roles. These were identified as the plant, the monitor evaluator, co-ordinators, the resource investigators, the implementers, the completer finishers, the teamworkers, the shapers, and the specialist. Each of these individuals plays a specific role in the team.

  1. The nature of motivation.

    because it does not concern itself with what energizes of initiates behavior. Cognitive Theories The other major line of development in psychological approaches to motivation is the cognitive theories. Whereas drive theories viewed behavior largely as a function of what happened in the past, cognitive theories saw motivation as a sort of "hedonism of the future."

  2. Concept of Motivation & its Theories

    trust in our boss and superiors, support of colleagues and subordinates, personal sacrifice, etc. People need to feel that there is a fair balance between inputs and outputs. Outputs are typically all financial rewards - pay, salary, expenses, perks, benefits, pension arrangements, bonus and commission - plus intangibles - recognition,

  1. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

    * Safety/Security Needs: The needs that follow these are the needs for safety, which is essentially the need for security and protection from any harm. * Belonging Needs: The social needs of a person are the needs to belong to a social group and to feel loved and be cared for.

  2. Employee Motivation. Case Study of the incentive schemes at the Jodhpur branch of ...

    *?Assist in conservation of oil, more efficient use energy and development of alter - nate source of energy. *?Environmental protection *? Observe 100% safety in work. Rajasthan forward base, Jodhpur The Rajasthan forward base is having its base office at jodhpur in the western Rajasthan.

  1. 'In what ways, and to what extent do males and females have different experiences ...

    The authors maintain that acts of subtle or unconscious discrimination are prevalent and are just as damaging. Worse, because these acts are largely unintentional, they usually do not fall under existing antidiscrimination laws. It is in this type of situation that the early use of mediation can be very helpful and effective.

  2. Leadership and Motivation

    People that are named as a leader is not made, they are born. It is the ability to attain objectives by working with and through people. Leader is the person that is creating conditions that motivate employees by establishing goals and influencing on the employees to achieve those goals.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work