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The Restoration period in Scotland.

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Introduction

The Restoration period in Scotland signified the separation of the kingdoms and independence. However, this had major implications for the Scottish economy. This essay will examine Herman's claim that the Scots were starting to establish a stronger position in commerce.1 Several aspects will be examined which directly affected the economy and the consequences of them. The main emphasis will be on English protectionist policies regarding trade links and how Scotland reacted. Both economies of Scotland and England will be compared. Examining the development of new industries will provide an insight into how this signified an upward trend in the economy despite the limitations placed on Scotland. Traditionally, Scotland's economy relied on agriculture. Crops were the mainstay of the Scottish diet and food shortages were still a common occurrence.2Farming never fully recovered from the 1623 famine, which culminated in thousands starving to death. This was reflected in the instability of food prices.3 In looking at the consequences of the Restoration in monarchical terms, Charles II demanded financial compensation for his exile. His debts and his father's (Charles I) were to be honoured by Parliament.4 The sum demanded was astronomical in modern day terms. ...read more.

Middle

resulted in the failure to secure any kind of agreement.17 Although the evidence does tend to suggest that Scotland's economy was in extreme difficulty, there were small signs of improvement in certain areas. The foundations were laid for relatively new industries to flourish. Some improvements were made in agriculture. E.g. areas such as Fife and Lothian incorporated a crop rotation system, partial enclosure and liming of the soil as new farming methods.18 In turn, this encouraged a migration of young people who were seeking employment.19 One of the factors which strengthened the Scottish economy, was the 1672 Act Anent Trade of the Burghs. This relaxed the monopolies of the royal burghs allowing smaller competitors to capture opportunities in the market, which their larger counterparts may have ignored.20 Subsequently, another sign of economic strength was the wave of new manufacturing outlets which became apparent during the Restoration, providing optimism within the Scottish economy. Soap and sugar factories opened in Glasgow in 1667 and 1669, earning Glasgow the title of the 'boomtown' of the 17th century.21 The coal industry steadily increased its production and signified the beginning of private enterprise industry, 'employing workers in a stable and structured environment'.22 The volume of coal exports had doubled by the 1680's.23 Glasgow was particularly significant in the upward trend of the economy. ...read more.

Conclusion

This Sceptred Isle, p. 227 23 Houston & Knox. Scotland from the Earliest Times, p. 207 24 Ibid., p. 205 25 Rosalind Mitchison. A History of Scotland, p. 255 26 Michael Lynch. Scotland A new History, p. 309 27 Arthur Herman. How the Scots Invented the Modern World, p. 9 Brown, K, M. Kingdom or Province? Scotland and the Regal Union, 1603 - 1715 MacMillan Press Ltd, London 1992 Dickinson, W. C. Scotland from the earliest times to 1603 a New History of Scotland Vol I Thomas Nelson & sons Ltd., Edinburgh 1961 Herman, A. How the Scots Invented the Modern World Crown Publishing Group, New York 2001 Houston, R.A. & Knox, W.W.J. The New Penguin History of Scotland from the Earliest times to the Present day Penguin Press, London 2001 Konkola, K. & MacCulloch, D. 'People of the book: Success in the English Reformation' History Today Vol 53 (10) Oct 2003 Lee, C. This Sceptred Isle 55BC - 1907 From the Roman Invasion to the death of Queen Victoria Penguin Books & BBC books, London 1997 Lynch, M. Scotland A New History Century, London 1991 Magnusson, M. Scotland the Story of a Nation Harper Collins, London 2001 Mitchison, R. A History of Scotland Methuen & co. Ltd, London 1979 Prebble, J. Darien the Scottish Dream of Empire Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh 2000 1 1 ...read more.

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