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University Degree: Music

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  1. Beethoven and his influence on Schubert

    "Beethoven's story is one of personal triumph over tragedy and supreme musical achievement. A complex and brilliant man, no composer before or since has exerted greater influence" ( Lane, 2006). The life that he had been through, his hearing disorder and as a result the loneliness inside his personality were the parts of the tragedy, which Beethoven successfully amalgamated with his enormous talent and produced works that have still been respected in the 21th century. Even if the later composers tried to resist the influence of Beethoven, they were quite failed to do that.

    • Word count: 1876
  2. Live Music and Festivals

    (Frew, E & Robertson, M. (2008) Events and Festivals - Current Trends and Issues, Routledge: London). Festivals and events can be generated the private or corporate sectors. 1.1 Key Moments and Shift over the Last 50 years Key movements and shifts that have occurred within the Live Music and Festival Event sector motivate visits as well as enhancing peoples' lives. However like many things, live events and festivals have both positive and negative sides, with the actions of people attending the events and the media coverage of these events being the make or break of any future events consisting.

    • Word count: 1966
  3. Jazz vs Classical Music

    European because most of the major composers up till the 20th century was European. Vivaldi was Italian, Bach was German, Mozart and Beethoven were Austrian; they are some of the more prominent composers. Not until the twentieth century with Gershwin and a few others do we find American composers writing this kind of art music. For the sake of convention, we can refer to Western Art Music as Classical music. Jazz is a distinctively American form of music, and it's history occupies a much smaller span of time.

    • Word count: 1752
  4. Concert review

    Thus at the year of 1964, it was entitle again as the 'Rock Music' (infoplease.com, 2006). As for being a musician, the genre 'Rock' is the category and direction of music that I have been associated and familiarize with. Therefore, this concert review would be based on my experience, my knowledge upon 'Rock' and also certain readings that could define the further meaning 'Rock' and it's characteristics. The band was formed during the year of 2005 and is quite well known around Malaysia as the band has won several titles for best Rock category. The band members were Rich as vocalist, Din Hormatov as rhythm guitarist, Nor Hanafi as lead guitarist, Azwin Andy as the drummer and Chow Ken Chung as bassist.

    • Word count: 1618
  5. To what extent can The Rite's innovations be boiled down to rhythm alone?

    I had dreamed a scene of pagan ritual in which a chosen sacrificial virgin danced herself to death. This vision was not accompanied by concrete musical ideas, however...1 One could surmise that the order in which the two entities - music and storyline - arrived is of great relevance. However, although the above quote is the most recent and the best-known, other accounts given by the composer seem to contradict it, suggesting that it was the musical ideas that came first.2 Nonetheless, when compared to The Firebird or the works of Tchaikovsky, which were specifically commissioned, the desired musical effect to be composed presented to the composer half-formed, it is understandable that Stravinsky's decision to choose a radical and original plot (in terms of subject matter previously covered by the arts)

    • Word count: 1881
  6. Discuss in detail the Fugue from Bach(TM)s Well-Tempered Clavier Book 1 no. 24

    The six pairs of quavers, slurring the interval of a minor second are described by Keller as a 'sigh-motive.' 7 Each pair gives the listener a feel of resolution but followed by immediate continuation, building up tension in the subject alone and as a whole the subject depicts the feeling of misery to the listener. The subject and its tonal answer both enter in full a number of times. In order to increase tension further Bach uses small fragments of the subject, teasing the listener into thinking that the subject has returned but then cutting it short.

    • Word count: 1255
  7. What are the essential features of Chopin(TM)s style?

    in figure 2 but the listener also feels as if the piano is crying out.5 In contrast to Kleczynski's view Samson writes: 'because of the earlier simplicity of presentation, this reprise emerges as one of the supreme achievements of Chopin's ornamental melody.'6 For some listeners, however, these trills may seem a little overdone and unimaginative and even justify Kleczynski's opinion that Chopin's creativity was lacking at this point. Fig. 2 F. Chopin Nocturne Op. 62 No. 1 Bars 69 - 71 Despite the possible differences of opinion regarding the melody shown above Chopin's characteristic transplantation of bel canto into his

    • Word count: 1907
  8. Free essay

    Effects of the Reformation on Music

    church music of England remained highly complex and elaborate, however, as a result of the reformation in Germany the attitude towards music in the reformed church changed from one which valued music primarily, if not solely, for its artistic merits, to one that considered music to be an effective medium for carrying text and powerful means by which one could tell a story and convey meaning. Luther was a great lover of music and highly esteemed it for its beauty saying: "I truly desire that all Christians would love and regard as worthy the lovely gift of music, which is a precious, worthy, and costly treasure given to mankind by God....

    • Word count: 1458
  9. Dance history

    Yosef Garfinkel of Hebrew University in Jerusalem has established what he says is an illustrated record of dancing from 9,000 to 5,000 years ago. This record, apparently the earliest of its kind, coincides with the place and time hunters of wild game and gatherers of wild plant food first settled into villages and became pastoralists and farmers. It may take imagination to see in these depictions the choreographic ancestry of Astaire and Rogers or the Bolshoi. Some show only stick figures with triangular heads, and some headless, in highly schematic scenes that appear to be dances.

    • Word count: 1230
  10. Old man

    One element of the play is the gender roles. Nora, according to Emma Goldman, is to be happy for Torvald's and the children's sake. She is to sing, dance, and play with the children. Goldman, Emma. (Goldman, Emma. "The Emma Goldman Papers.") Nora didn't marry for love she married for money. There is no love between the two. This is shown in the beginning of the play when Torvald asks Nora what she wants for Christmas and she say she wants money. Nora is like a child, a doll if you will.

    • Word count: 1474
  11. Describe 3 passages which you feel display Prokofiev's mastery of orchestral effects, giving one example from each section

    Therefore, in bar 4, not only is Prokofiev using a large majority of the instruments in the orchestra, but he is having them split into two section playing two different chords and he still manages to make it sound magnificent, even though it should, in theory, sound awful! Between bars 4-8 Prokofiev then has a very melodic and lyrical progression of straight chords, completely contradicting what has just been played, again adding to the passages overall beauty. In bar 9, Prokofiev then begins the cycle again, and has another progression of cluster chords, building up to another great chord created this time out of 11 out of 12 of the degrees of the scale.

    • Word count: 1330
  12. "Mama -Just killed a Man" - Queen's Bohemian Rhapsody.

    Together the term Bohemian Rhapsody expresses the backbone of what Freddie Mercury was showing when he composed this song. Freddie expresses a freethinking nature through his lyrics and irregular character through his musical form. Although one may think of Queen's Bohemian Rhapsody as a song "random, rhyming nonsense" stated by Freddie's long-term friend Kenny Everett it is actually random rhyming that makes a lot of sense. Portrayed in three separate sections of disconnected structure, the song displays numerous innuendos of Freddie's sexual orientation in addition to his religious beliefs. In Joan Didion's essay White Album she tells a story without a particular narrative structure about different elements and experiences of her life.

    • Word count: 1660
  13. What Influence did Black American Music have on the British Working Class Youth in the Sixties?

    The Sixties saw a time when the first people born after the Second World War would become teenagers. Also the fifties was said to be a time of gloom still in the aftermath of the war, rationing on certain goods and constraints on imports of such items like cloths. In the sixties things were changing the economy was picking up, rationing was over and tariffs on exports were being relaxed meaning a lot of fashion items from abroad were becoming available. It was the teenagers of the time that took advantage of this. The teenagers were well equipped to do so because of the "comprehensive welfare state" (Marwick)

    • Word count: 1426
  14. Rage Against The Machine self-titled track Rage Against The Machine was released June sixth of nineteen ninety-two by Epic Records.

    After the drums are introduced the load explosive lyrics start. This fades in the middle of the song to a lighter sound for a brief break in till building back up for a bit and fading back once more. Finally it builds back up in till end of the song. Song two Killing In The Name gives me the impression that every thing is not as it seems to be. You should look further into things that don't seem to add up. This song also makes me feel motivated to work out and release aggression build up from within.

    • Word count: 1035
  15. Miles Davis So What transcription and analysis

    In measure 23, he sets up an anticipation of the return to E dorian with the chromatic interplay of Eb and E. However, in this last A section of chorus one, beginning in measure 25, he places less emphasis on tonic E than before and uses, instead, a B on the phrase endings, serving as a smoother transition to the new polytonal sound (D major over E minor) of chorus two. Chorus two is also distinguished by a rhythmic change from the moving eighth note line of chorus one B section to a triadic line marked by half and whole notes.

    • Word count: 1563
  16. "What is meant by the expression Ars nova in the 14th century?"

    In the case of metre, the most commonly used note values had been diminishing in duration during the preceding centuries, for example, longs had given way to breves, which had in turn been divided up in to semibreves, to minims and so forth. The dissection of the semibreve was of imperative importance to the composers of the Ars nova, and this division could occur in a number of ways, for example; 1. Taking the imperfect time of two semibreves and dividing them into four or six minims, or 2.

    • Word count: 1422
  17. Can music be a representational art? Discuss some views on this issue.

    Following from 1), the observer must be able to distinguish the medium of representation (e.g. pastels) from the subject of representation (e.g. a vase). If the medium and the subject are mixed up, then the conditions for a sufficient understanding of the representation are not fulfilled (and so condition 1 is not met). 3. To be a representation, the work must convey thoughts about its subject and to be interested in the work is to be interested in comprehension of those thoughts.

    • Word count: 1722
  18. The Yorkville district located in Toronto was a village where young musical and artistic talent could gather and share their love of music during the 1960's.

    Yorkville also served as grounds for a youthful social movement which thrived through the music of the times. During the early sixties, folk music was beginning to make an impact on popular music in Canada. Gordon Lightfoot and Ian Tyson and Sylvia Fricker were the pioneers of folk music in Yorkville. Canadians could relate to the lyrical content and the introspective composition that these and other folk artists to follow, conveyed in their music. The venues in Yorkville happened to be the most creative environment where most of these artists, many who had come from all over Canada, could express this through the numerous coffeehouse shows.

    • Word count: 1887
  19. Describe the introduction and development in America of three musical traditions.

    After the civil war, the newly freed Afro-American people were presented with a new difficulty. They had been removed from the lives that they had previously known and thrown into a new life, a life of segregation and contempt. The American culture could no longer condone the use of slavery, but it was not ready to accept the new free men and women into their society either. Many had to travel the country in search of work. These people were mostly men and those of whom music appealed to most took up instruments such as the guitar and harmonica because these instruments were cheap and easy to travel with.

    • Word count: 1278
  20. Fidelio's Initial Response.

    Though that sounds a bit arrogant, he was Beethoven; the greatest composer of western music to date, and that was his goal. Finally he stumbled across a libretto inspired by the French technique, which intrigued him, and he jumped at the opportunity. By November of 1805, the initial version of what was called at the time "Leonora," was ready to be premiered. A key fact to the reception of this piece however lies in history. In late October 1805, Napoleon's armies were bearing down on Vienna (Brener 27).

    • Word count: 1074
  21. The kitchen, a 'realist text' is written by Arnold Wesker, a 'naturalistic writer'.

    Now directors, especially in the ever more contemporary theatre world we live in, will be tempted to ignore or change these notes to create their own aesthetic on stage. For me this would be criminal. When experimenting with the actions each character is given, by means of mime, possible cooking methods are extremely difficult to generate especially differentiating between actions. Extra research is needed to look at exactly how each dish is made in a real kitchen. Once we as performers have our own certain routines set out it is clear we need the correct amount of space to operate correctly.

    • Word count: 1817
  22. The relationship between Composer and Performer

    Notation became flexible, adaptable to and relevant to the playing situation. Conventional notation does not necessarily equal lots of possible interpretations; the way to interpret pieces by Beethoven and Chopin (to take these composers as a further example) has been heartily disputed over the years in spite of the clear " simple " notation use by the composer. In the same way, an elaborate or complicated notation such as those found in much contemporary music, can permit varied interpretation. A conventional notation, that is notation which covers duration-pitch relationship, is not flexible enough to relate extended compositional requirements.

    • Word count: 1440
  23. English Assessment Task: Remembering

    Facey remembers events but never lingers on the memories more then is necessary for his development. On the contrary the composer of Piano wants to dwell in his past, '...the heart of me weeps to belong...' the composer wants to remain in his reverie. 2. The texts The Longest Memory, Piano and A Fortunate Life present vastly different, and very similar ideas about remembrance. The Longest Memory shows that remembrance can have consequences. Negative memories can have adverse affects on the holder of such memories. One could expect that A Fortunate Life being the relation of a number of horrific events experienced by the composer could produce such negative affects.

    • Word count: 1724
  24. Short Analysis of "Five Pieces for Orchestra op. 16, mvt. 1" by Arnold Schoenberg

    Regardless, Arnold Schoenberg passed shortly before midnight on Friday the 13th in July of 1951 at the age of 76 (7 + 6 = 13). Schoenberg is often highly associated with the expressionist movement. ?Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.

    • Word count: 1359
  25. Essay onmy experience ofmanaging a music event management

    I measure the effectiveness of the groups plan by using some of the health check points stated in Barker and Cole?s book ?Brilliant Project Management? 1. Are the project?s objectives clear and measurable? The objective was to construct a musical event and to deliver a quality product within an agreed time scale. The group had a clear understanding of this and given the set time schedule, this was more than achievable. 1. Has anyone documented what the project needs to deliver?

    • Word count: 1509

"Where words fail, music speaks."

-Hans Christian Andersen

If you can correctly guess most of Bach's cantatas within a few bars, or you'd happily spend an entire weekend composing electronic music, then you might want to consider a university degree in music. Depending on the course, you might study musicology, performance, composition and music technology.

Alongside songs, music students will be expected to compose plenty of essays. If your writing doesn't flow as well as your melodies then you might want to consider studying Marked by Teachers' collection of creative arts and design essays. Reading our real student essays and the teacher's annotations will give you techniques for smarter editing and better writing, prestissimo.

Students of music can stay in the field via teaching,recording, arts administration and performing; or pursue further study and careers in unrelated fields like medicine or marketing. But whatever direction your career might take, musical knowledge will never stop enriching your life.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "A notation should be directed to a large extent towards the people who read it, rather than towards the sounds they will make." (Cornelius Cardew, 1961) Discuss.

    "As we have seen, 'simple' notation does not necessarily equal many possible interpretations, and on the same line, an elaborate notation such as Cardew's can permit varied interpretation. The psychological impact of how the music looks on the page invites varied readings; the printed page is a storage medium where an inevitably incomplete representation of 'notateable' ideas can be retained for the future. The fact that this aspect of the work does not change over time, like a painting or a book, does not mean that the piece will not change and evolve. Art's ability to carry societal properties, to evolve and reflect changing times is surely part of its value. The search for greater notational control led to greater complexity, yet the early influence of the possibilities of electronic music must have contributed to this pursuit. Peter Zinofieff spoke of an early ideal, satisfied by electronic composition, where 'we can each have our own private language specially tailored for our own machines and individual needs or frustrations' 21 Ultimately, though, the performer's job is 'to make the relationships and patterns in the music clear to the listener's mind and ear'22. This hope, though, displaces the enduring problems which lie between composers and those who are employed to realise the work, be they human or otherwise."

  • To what extent did the composers of symphonies in the Soviet Unionmanage to comply with the strictures of state control of music whilst retaining a degree of creative individuality?

    "Therefore in conclusion, the early work of Shostakovich constructs a narrative in which the strictures of the state can be discerned but this didn't stop many aspects of his work to achieving distinct individuality. The referring back to the conservatism of his first symphony and at the same time embracing the rebellion of the intermediate Symphonies enabled Shostakovich to strike a balance between conforming to state policy and maintaining his individuality. Thus, the ambiguous nature of music enabled this composer the means to challenge state musical policy without the regime taking noticing."

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