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University Degree: Music

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  1. Popular Music History 2 - Heavy Metal.

    The third trend, which may be found in both American and British rock music of this period, was towards the heavy metal sound (featuring a predominantly long haired white male audience), frequently based in the chord structures of the blues but retaining from psychedelia an emphasis on technological effect and instrumental virtuosity. In groups on the edge of psychedelia - such as Blue Cheer, The Yardbirds, Cream, Jeff Beck, Jimi Hendrix, and Iron Butterfly - many of the stylistic traits that would become dominant within heavy metal were already in evidence: the cult of the lead guitarist, the 'power trio'

    • Word count: 2196
  2. "What is meant by the expression Ars nova in the 14th century?"

    In the case of metre, the most commonly used note values had been diminishing in duration during the preceding centuries, for example, longs had given way to breves, which had in turn been divided up in to semibreves, to minims and so forth. The dissection of the semibreve was of imperative importance to the composers of the Ars nova, and this division could occur in a number of ways, for example; 1. Taking the imperfect time of two semibreves and dividing them into four or six minims, or 2.

    • Word count: 1422
  3. Mimesis - Is music an imitative art?

    Likewise, the artist creates a mimetic painting by imitating shapes around him, trees, animals, other humans, and so on. However, neither the composer nor the artist imitates these things just for the sake of it, they are all trying to achieve something by doing this, and it is surely fair to say that they all know perfectly well why they are creating their works the way they are: a painting can set or represent a certain mood, while in a piece of music the composer either tries to express his own or someone else's deepest feelings or alternatively he tries to tell a story, not necessarily without words, but by imitating (or should this be representing?)

    • Word count: 2891
  4. To what extent did the composers of symphonies in the Soviet Unionmanage to comply with the strictures of state control of music whilst retaining a degree of creative individuality?

    The amorphous nature of music renders the notion of enforcement a difficult task. Can a language, which asserts it's-self subjectively and speaks no narrative be used to represent the cultural identity of ones country? Music accrues its meaning and definition through the interpretation of the individual listener and this translation will thus vary from person to person. Therefore, it can never be employed to represent the ideals of everybody. Composers such as Shostakovich and Prokoviev were all too familiar with this musical dilemma and the bulk of their work is littered with frequent contradictions in style, form and content as a response to state intervention.

    • Word count: 2772
  5. Compare and contrast the methods of treating thematic material on the part of Goldsmith in Planet of the Apes and Bernstein in On the Waterfront.

    At bar 7, it is treated in fugue by the flutes (in octaves) and trombone and then repeated but altered by trumpets from bars 13 to 18 with the clarinets ending it at bar 20. In the first 20 bars, fugue, changes of instrumentation and repetition have been used. Next a more rhythmic orientated theme is introduced involving the timps, piano and other percussion playing quaver based ostinatoes. At bar 42, the alto sax solos over the ostinatoes using semitones and perfect fourths. At bar 54, the wood wind repeat the theme but the note values have been diminished.

    • Word count: 604
  6. Punk rock in the 70's.

    Fashion in the mid to late '70's took a dramatic plunge from the glamour rock era (late 60's - early 70's). From suits and gowns to torn jeans and shirts, and marvellous make-up to tattoos and safety pin body piercings. Punks' weren't the most pleasingly aesthetic group to socialise with! Along with their ragged dress style, punks' flaunted their behaviour to go with their shocking visual appearance. Parents considered punks' to be an undesirable influence on their children due to the latent violence, explicit music, sexual attitudes, drug habits and the way punks' presented themselves both visually and musically.

    • Word count: 2245
  7. Can music be a representational art? Discuss some views on this issue.

    Following from 1), the observer must be able to distinguish the medium of representation (e.g. pastels) from the subject of representation (e.g. a vase). If the medium and the subject are mixed up, then the conditions for a sufficient understanding of the representation are not fulfilled (and so condition 1 is not met). 3. To be a representation, the work must convey thoughts about its subject and to be interested in the work is to be interested in comprehension of those thoughts.

    • Word count: 1722
  8. The Yorkville district located in Toronto was a village where young musical and artistic talent could gather and share their love of music during the 1960's.

    Yorkville also served as grounds for a youthful social movement which thrived through the music of the times. During the early sixties, folk music was beginning to make an impact on popular music in Canada. Gordon Lightfoot and Ian Tyson and Sylvia Fricker were the pioneers of folk music in Yorkville. Canadians could relate to the lyrical content and the introspective composition that these and other folk artists to follow, conveyed in their music. The venues in Yorkville happened to be the most creative environment where most of these artists, many who had come from all over Canada, could express this through the numerous coffeehouse shows.

    • Word count: 1887
  9. The research on musical varieties and preferences examined on particular examples of the music art.

    Was there unity to what you were hearing? Did certain sounds keep repeating (like a barking dog). Or did things keep changing? b) What kind of sound environment was this? In the country early on a Sunday morning? A busy traffic intersection? An office...? c) How was your mood affected? 5. Silvie? is a folk song composed by Huddie Ledbetter, a.k.a. Lead Belly, (1889-1949 6. The ?Body and Soul? and Haydn ?scherzo? excerpts (pp. 32-34) both illustrate basic features of repetition and contrast, but they are obviously very different in terms of sound and style.

    • Word count: 618
  10. Describe the introduction and development in America of three musical traditions.

    After the civil war, the newly freed Afro-American people were presented with a new difficulty. They had been removed from the lives that they had previously known and thrown into a new life, a life of segregation and contempt. The American culture could no longer condone the use of slavery, but it was not ready to accept the new free men and women into their society either. Many had to travel the country in search of work. These people were mostly men and those of whom music appealed to most took up instruments such as the guitar and harmonica because these instruments were cheap and easy to travel with.

    • Word count: 1278
  11. Avant-Garde Techniques.

    Another type of prepared piano is the tack piano. A tack piano has small nails secured into the hammers to create a more percussive sound. Other materials can be used i.e. covering the hammers with metal or leather to create different timbres. (Sadie, S. (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Fifth Ed. p598). (Rich, A. (1995). American Pioneers: Ives to Cage and Beyond (1st ed.). pp149 - 152). Chance music was an invention that Cage used in all of his compositions from 1951.

    • Word count: 2371
  12. Eesti Muusikaakadeemia.

    ning �ks tavaarvustus (Bj�rki Vespertine), mis tegelikult ei erine mahult m�nest n�dala plaadi retsensioonist. Kuiv�rd ei ole teada �htegi universaalset, igasse konteksti sobivat definitsiooni popmuusika kohta, tuleb siinkohal lahti m�testada, mida k�esolevas uurimuses popmuusikana k�sitletakse. Popmuusika all m�istan teatud populaarmuusikastiile (pop-rock ja paljud h�briidsed stiilid), mis on algselt p�rit peamiselt USA ja Suurbritannia 1950. aastate kultuurimaastikult. L��nemaailmas on popmuusika alates 20. sajandi teisest poolest muutunud domineerivaks.1 Kuna pop ja rock on t�naseks sulandunud, on ka pop- ja rockkriitika piir muutunud �hmaseks. Seep�rast l�htub proseminarit�� pop/rockmuusikat �hendavast kriitikat��bist, pidamata oluliseks seda kriitikat��pi t�histavat m�istet. Meetodil, mille abil plaadiarvustusi anal��sin, on palju �hist kvalitatiivse sisuanal��siga.2 Anal��simeetodi, millest on t�psemalt kirjutatud peat�kis 2.3., koostamisel olen kasutanud veel Simon Frithi ja Pekka Oeschi, aga ka Tiit Hennoste ja Janet M.

    • Word count: 9685
  13. Midi Sequencing - Over-view of MIDI.

    MIDI-track construction. In all, I used eleven Midi channels, each with there own separate ports. All the ports are numbered "port 1-1, port 1-2" etc with the exception of "port 1-10" as this is a preset Drum and percussion channel. I had set my BPM count to "120", as I was trying to create an R&B kind of track. For each channel, with the exception of the drums and percussion (ports 1-10), I chose a sound from the MU50 sound module via the control strip.

    • Word count: 629
  14. The Haas Effect - Echoes and Location

    However the brain can also pickup the location of individual sounds among many other sounds, like picking exactly where different voices are originating from in a crowd. This ability to quickly and instinctively locate sounds is a very important one in early human survival, and it may well have developed from the survival of the fittest area of evolution. It is quite easy to see that if somebody could hear exactly where the sounds of animals which they wanted to catch were coming from, they would be able to catch more of them and thus have more food to live on.

    • Word count: 3981
  15. Compare and contrast four preludes from J.S Bach's 'The Well Tempered Clavier'.

    In J.S Bach's Preludes each prelude represents a distinct type of figuration, texture, form or technical problem. As was the case with Debussy where he established a unique identity at the start through melody (La Fille aux Cheveux de Lin), texture, harmonics (Voiles), ornaments (minstrels) or rhythm. Bach was writing during the Baroque period where he was a practical musician where he composed and performed. During the composing of the Well Tempered Clavier Bach lived in Cothen in 1717 where he worked as a chapel master and director of chamber music. He occupied himself with orchestral and smaller ensemble compositions, but also composed a number of keyboard works that served instructional purposes.

    • Word count: 2252
  16. The Evolution of Dub Music.

    The strong emergence of the sound system began to strengthen the relationship between the producer ad deejay. One of the biggest sound systems during this time was owned by Ruddy Redwood in Spanish Town. Known as Rudy's Supreme Ruler of Sound, it was said that he had one of the most impressive selections of music. This was largely in part of his relationship with Duke Reid one of Jamaicans biggest producers of the time. Duke gave Ruddy access to many exclusive recordings from his studio giving him an advantage over other sound systems. Ruddy went on to play a fundamental role in the development of Dub, he is accredited with being the first person to do a public performance of what became known as version, the instrumental mix of a song minus the vocals.

    • Word count: 2809
  17. The Hebrides - Mendelssohn.

    was the lonely island and the main inspiration for his music. But in Mendelssohn's published letter's there is no mention of Staffa and the title foisted by the publishers meant that it wasn't the Fingel caves which inspired him and Staffa wasn't the lonely island. Mendelssohn composed the Hebrides over just under a 3- year period but there were 2 different versions written. The first version was finished in Rome in December 1830 and he headed it Die Hebriden bur someone took a copy of it before Mendelssohn had made most of his alterations called Die einsame Insel.

    • Word count: 585
  18. Fidelio's Initial Response.

    Though that sounds a bit arrogant, he was Beethoven; the greatest composer of western music to date, and that was his goal. Finally he stumbled across a libretto inspired by the French technique, which intrigued him, and he jumped at the opportunity. By November of 1805, the initial version of what was called at the time "Leonora," was ready to be premiered. A key fact to the reception of this piece however lies in history. In late October 1805, Napoleon's armies were bearing down on Vienna (Brener 27).

    • Word count: 1074
  19. My Musical Appreciation.

    But from then on it all becomes more difficult. There really is no definite theme that runs through my musical taste. It varies greatly from extreme metal through hardcore punk, to electronica, briefly crossing into acoustic and pop. I constantly carry thirty mini discs with me wherever I go, most of which consist of two or more albums. I find this a necessity as my choice of listening material can change a number of times between getting on a bus, and getting off at the end of a journey.

    • Word count: 704
  20. The kitchen, a 'realist text' is written by Arnold Wesker, a 'naturalistic writer'.

    Now directors, especially in the ever more contemporary theatre world we live in, will be tempted to ignore or change these notes to create their own aesthetic on stage. For me this would be criminal. When experimenting with the actions each character is given, by means of mime, possible cooking methods are extremely difficult to generate especially differentiating between actions. Extra research is needed to look at exactly how each dish is made in a real kitchen. Once we as performers have our own certain routines set out it is clear we need the correct amount of space to operate correctly.

    • Word count: 1817
  21. By his use of imaginative orchestral colours Stravinsky makes the story of the Firebird come alive. Discuss this view of Stravinsky's use of the orchestra referring to suitable passages in the score, using the first five movements of the work.

    dominant 7ths and 9ths to show good magic which can bee seen in bar 14, based on D. This could represent a glimpse of the Firebird. Another one of Stravinsky's traits is that he works with sound, this section would be much easier for the string player to play across the strings, however to achieve the exact magical effect he wants it "Sul D". This use of sound is also seen in pantomime 2 where he asks the violins to play spiccato, also another very specific sound. In bar 16, beat 8, the mood becomes unearthly once again this could represent the magic Firebird disappearing.

    • Word count: 970
  22. The relationship between Composer and Performer

    Notation became flexible, adaptable to and relevant to the playing situation. Conventional notation does not necessarily equal lots of possible interpretations; the way to interpret pieces by Beethoven and Chopin (to take these composers as a further example) has been heartily disputed over the years in spite of the clear " simple " notation use by the composer. In the same way, an elaborate or complicated notation such as those found in much contemporary music, can permit varied interpretation. A conventional notation, that is notation which covers duration-pitch relationship, is not flexible enough to relate extended compositional requirements.

    • Word count: 1440
  23. Early Music.

    Hildegard traveled throughout southern Germany and into Switzerland and as far as Paris, preaching. Her sermons deeply moved people, and she was asked to provide written copies. In the last year of her life, she was briefly in trouble because she provided Christian burial for a young man who had been excommunicated. Her defense was that he had repented on his deathbed, and received the sacraments. Her convent was subjected to an interdict, but she protested eloquently, and the interdict was revoked. She died on September 17, 1179. Her surviving works include more than a hundred letters to emperors and popes, bishops, nuns, and nobility.

    • Word count: 3732
  24. A comparison of the baroque and modern flutes.

    Firstly, I plan to study the development of the baroque flute, as it is my main focus for this project, and what its capabilities were for composition. Then I will compare the flutes, using the pieces I have chosen, one written for a baroque flute, and one for a modern flute. From this investigation, I hope to be able to draw some conclusions about the better of the two flutes. At the moment I prefer the baroque flute to the modern flute, and I would like to prove that it is indeed the better flute.

    • Word count: 720
  25. Lauren Wood Concerto Grosso

    (1605-38). Influenced partly by Montejelli, the German composer Heinrich Schm�tz applied the new style to German glucose works. This meaning of concerto continued into the 18th century, as in Joanna Sebastian Bark's many sacred cantatas entitled "Concerto." A specific category of concerto arose for the first time in the late 17th century. Arcangelo Corelli, a leading violinist and composer of the then-prominent, north Italian violin school, used the new title concerto grosso for the 12 instrumental pieces of his opus 6 (probably written c. 1680-85 and published posthumously c. 1714). These works employed a string orchestra-called the concerto grosso, the ripieno ("full" In music, a repeating section: in the 14th and 15th centuries, it was the refrain at

    • Word count: 951

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