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"How can you alter your style of teaching to meet the demands of practice and competitive situations for individual, racket and team activities?"

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Introduction

"How can you alter your style of teaching to meet the demands of practice and competitive situations for individual, racket and team activities?" There are various styles of teaching suited to different situations and types of teacher. Considered factors should be age of the learner, experience and reasons for participation. This researched by Mosston and Ashworth. They believe that teaching and learning involve decisions about what is taught, what's learned, how and when. This is through the spectrum of teaching styles. Style: Teacher Control Command Practice Reciprocal Self-check Inclusion Guided Discovery Problem Solving Individual programme Learner Initiated Self teaching Learner Control At one end's the teacher style, the opposite being pupil centred. The spectrum looks at options in the relationship between teacher and learner. It's based on decision making which Mosston believed could be grouped into 3 areas: 1. Pre-Impact- concerned with decisions made before and teaching is given 2. Impact- involves decisions about our performance and how we carry out the performance 3. Post-Impact - evaluation of our performance and feedback from the learner to the teacher. Command style enables the teacher to make all decisions, adopting an authoritarian approach. I'd use this style with a large group or with dangerous activities to maintain control. Also if there's one technique for a skill; the demonstration applies to everyone. ...read more.

Middle

Students need to be motivated to achieve their potential. Atkinson (1974) suggests that there are two general classifications of athletic personality: NACH - those with the need to achieve and NAF- those who need to avoid failure. NACH athletes are better suited to teaching styles such as self-check, reciprocal, and learner initiated because they're highly motivated and understand the concept of improvement, therefore appreciating evaluations and negative feedback. NAF athletes have low confidence thus relying on positive feedback. Command and practise styles are at one end of the spectrum and are better suited to NAFs because they make them feel safe and secure i.e. they don't like new challenges. It boosts confidence because they participate the only way they know. Styles are often crossed, to compensate for mixed ability groups, which fulfil the aim of sustained motivation. E.g. y11 tennis class some players are autonomous phase learners and are put straight into a game situation to practice (self-check) whereas cognitive learners require command style to learn the basics clearly and see demonstrations. The teacher will know that transfer of learning is easier for some students, making their progress more rapid. This implies a change of style as students progress, down the spectrum. e.g. in the same class a beginner being an autonomous phase netballer/hockey player will have strong wrist flexors and agility necessary for tennis, giving them a physical advantage. ...read more.

Conclusion

not coming into the net and instead opting for rallies. In conclusion, different styles of teaching are suited to different ages, abilities, reasons for taking part, and sports. E.g. in trampolining guided discovery would be useful to create routines and stimulate creativity, but in hockey practising in a training match is more important as this is how they develop their creativity and awareness. Student attitude is also relevant and teachers can often base their style around this. Eager students may be sensibly behaved trustworthy with styles such as reciprocal. This determines the best style for everyone. Generally in competitive situations, teaching/coaching methods tend to be teacher centred and practise style to build confidence and apply acquisition of skill. With associative and autonomous athletes self check and reciprocal may also be used in order to promote team interaction e.g. hockey and to go through set plays tactics. Styles vary between sports, but generally the teaching method depends on the learning phase of the athlete. Cognitive phase athletes need to master not only the basic skills, but safety and rules so command is most suitable. E.g. tennis- a beginner may need manual guidance for a forehand stroke. With more skill, associative phase learners learn by reciprocal to encourage interaction as well as practising for improvement e.g. introducing a hockey team to a 20 minute games situation. This also encourages competitive elements of sport. ?? ?? ?? ?? LEB AS Level PE Sophie Morley L62 Word count 1358 ...read more.

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