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Maslow's theory has important implications for teachers. He suggests that whose deficiency needs have not been met cannot be able to realize the need to know and understand. For example, children who come to school without breakfast, insufficient sleep

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY EDS 544 THEORIES OF INSTRUCTION HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY AND INSTRUCTIONAL THEORY Submitted to Prof. Dr. Meral AKSU Submitted by Esma EMMIOGLU & Harun KATANALP Ankara, 2005 HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Humanistic psychology tries to understand the behavior from the point of view of the behavior rather than of the observer. Unlike behaviorist humanistic psychologist believe that humans are not solely the products of their environment. Rather humanistic psychologist study human meanings, understandings, and experiences involved in growing, teaching and learning. They emphasize characteristics that are shared by all human beings such as love, grief, caring and self-worth. Behaviorists viewed self as being too "internal" and hence too unobservable to be of much value and psychoanalytic thinkers considered it to be too conscious and hence too subject to distortion to be believed. Since the 1950s however, the idea of the self as the central core of the person has emerged as a kind of unifying principle of personality for psychologist and educators (Hamacheck, 1987). The self occupies a central seat of importance in humanistic psychology because it underscores the phenomenological idea that it is how people perceive themselves the world in which they live that determines their intra psychic feelings and interpersonal behaviors. A self-concept point of view allows the opportunity to consider self-perception as the intervening variable between the stimulus and response. Rather than it being a S-R world, one that some feel negates the person ,it becomes and S-P-R (Stimulus-Person- Response) world one that others feel elevates the person ,whereas at the same time establishing a frame of reference for explaining why responses may vary from one individual to another even though stimulus conditions are the same (Hamacheck, 1987). Humanistic psychologist study how people are influenced by their self-perceptions and the personal meanings attached to their experiences. They are not primarily concerned with instinctual drives, responses to external stimuli, or past experiences. Rather, they consider conscious choices, responses to internal needs, and current circumstances to be important in shaping human behavior.

Middle

S Neill at Summerhill, a school in England where students were given the freedom to study and attend lessons when they chose. According to reports made by the British Ministry of education, students were energetic, responsible, and took the initiative in their studies. Despite these results, several parents chose to remove their children after the age of 13 because they believed the academic preparation they received was inadequate. In the United States, Rogers' and Maslow's work enabled the growth of the humanistic movement and eventually the open education program, based on the principles of humanistic education, which became popular in the 1970s Rogers' person or client-centered therapy asserts that an individual's intrinsic tendency toward self-actualization can be explored in a therapeutic relationship in which the therapist provides personal consistency, unconditional positive regard, and realistic empathetic understanding. In his book Freedom to learn for the 80s Roger's defined learning as; the insatiable curiosity that drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of car his "cruiser." He said: "I am talking about the student who says, I am discovering, drawing in from the outside, and making that which is drawn in a real part of me." He divided learning into two general types. Fist is the learning which involves the mind only. It does not involve feelings or personal meanings; it has no relevance for the whole person. The second type of learning is meaningful, experiential learning. Significant or experiential learning has; a. a quality of personal involvement: the whole person and in both feeling and cognitive aspects being in the learning event. b. It is self-initiated. Even when the impetus or stimulus comes from the outside, the sense of discovery, of reaching out, of grasping and comprehending, comes from within. c. It is pervasive. It makes a difference in the behavior, the attitudes, perhaps even the personality of the learner. d. It is evaluated by the learner.

Conclusion

The group usually begins with little imposed structure; the situation and the purposes are up to the group members to decide. The leader's function is to facilitate expression and to clarify or point out the dynamic pattern of the groups struggle. And increasing the free, direct, and spontaneous communication occurs between members of the group. Facades become less necessary. Defenses are lowered and basic "encounters" occur as individuals reveal hitherto hidden feelings and aspects of themselves and receive spontaneous feedback - both negative and positive- from group members. Some or many individuals become much more facilitative in relationship to others, making possible greater freedom of expression. 9. Self-Evaluation: The evaluation of ones own learning is one of the major means by which self initiated learning becomes also responsible learning. It is when the individual has to take the responsibility for deciding what criteria are important to him, what goals must be achieved, and the extent to which he has achieved those goals, that he truly learns to take responsibly for himself and his directions. Students analyze their personal strengths and weaknesses and confer with other members of the group to have feedback. OPEN TEACHING An open approach to the teaching-learning process which recognizes valid wish of every student to be involved in some way in the direction of his own learning. It respects children's natural impulse to learn and understand the ways they gain and create knowledge of special concern; it changes the function of a teacher from "telling information" to one of providing choice and facilitating inquiry activity. Open education has been evaluated in many research investigations. In his book Rogers (1983) gave an example of Horwitz and Walberg's ( 1979) investigations. As their conclusions: "open education, authentically implemented, consistently reaches its goals in creativity, self concept, school attitudes, curiosity, and independence". You can see their investigation results as the following table shows. Note that there is not one area in which traditional education is superior to the open approach. In academic achievement there is no significant difference.

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