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Multilingualism, Lingua Franca, or Both? Aspects of the Emergence of English in Europe and the Implications on Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in Germany.

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Introduction

Multilingualism, Lingua Franca, or Both? Aspects of the Emergence of English in Europe and the Implications on Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in Germany Contents 1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................... 1 2. THE ROLE OF ENGLISH IN EUROPE......................................................... 3 2.1 THE WORLDWIDE SPREAD OF ENGLISH............................................ 3 2.2 THE PRESENT SITUATION OF ENGLISH IN EUROPE................................ 4 3. LINGUA FRANCA VERSUS MULTILINGUALISM........................................... 6 3.1 THE CONCEPT OF LINGUA FRANCA................................................ 6 3.2 THE CONCEPT OF MULTILINGUALISM.............................................. 7 3.3 DOES EUROPE NEED A LINGUA FRANCA?......................................... 7 3.4 THE LANGUAGE DEBATE IN THE EU................................................ 7 4. THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (EFL) IN GERMANY........ 11 4.1 THE HISTORY OF EFL IN GERMANY................................................. 11 4.2 THE PRESENT SITUATION OF EFL IN GERMANY................................... 12 4.3 THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE LANGUAGE DEBATE ON EFL........................ 13 4.3.1 METHODICAL CHANGES.................................................................... 13 4.3.2 DIDACTIC CHANGES........................................................................ 14 4.3.3 STRUCTURAL CHANGES.................................................................... 14 4.4 WHICH "ENGLISH" SHOULD BE TAUGHT?......................................... 15 5. CONCLUSION.................................................................................. 17 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................... 18 1. INTRODUCTION The European process of integration is preceding, and, thanks to the common currency of the Euro, the European Union (EU) has made progress towards a feeling of community. However, the union of 15 countries, resulting in 11 official languages (Mackiewicz, 1998) has led to a language problem, which will increase when the intended enlargement of the EU of the Eastern European countries is put into action. The multitude of different languages in the EU raised the language debate and the questions which position these languages should take and which language should be used for communication within the EU. In order to avoid that Europe gets lost in a disorder of many official and working languages, some people argue for the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF), as it is already widely used in different areas of communication in the EU. Some even propose that English should be made the official language of Europe. On the contrary, others fear that if English is used as lingua franca, other languages, in particular minority languages, will be eliminated and therefore call for multilingualism. ...read more.

Middle

One variety is called the prestige form (or H) and is used in formal settings and writing. The other variety (or L) is used in informal conversation (Ferguson, 1959). Consequently, English would be H (as official and working language of the EU) and, for instance, German would be L (as language for everyday communication). To carry on with this scenario, all other EU languages would have the state of L, too, and as a consequence, communication amongst Europeans in an informal context could happen via the use of the L-languages. As a result, multilingualism as well as a ELF could be put into practise. I acknowledge that this is a rather speculative view, and reality is more complex. However, if English would be regarded as a "language for communication" (House, 2001), it could take the position of a lingua franca in certain areas of life, for instance business, political affairs and administration to make communication smoother, without being a threat to European languages and culture. To ensure this, other EU languages have to be taught and learnt increased in order to guarantee now one will feel underprivileged or disregarded and the linguistic and cultural diversity as such will be preserved. Hence, the teaching of foreign languages will have to be reconsidered, which will be discussed in the following chapter. 4. THE TEACHING OF EFL IN GERMANY Firstly, this chapter will give a short insight into historical aspects of the teaching of EFL in Germany, in order to demonstrate the change from a very conservative concept to the concept of interculturalism. Secondly, the present situation of EFL in Germany will be illuminated and the implications of the language debate in the EU on the curriculum will be discussed. Finally, details of the effect of a possible acceptance of the model Multilingualism plus English and the future of EFL in Germany will be examined. 4.1 THE HISTORY OF EFL IN EUROPE The teaching of foreign languages in Europe exists since the mid-19th-century. ...read more.

Conclusion

pp. 193-211. H�llen, Werner (1982). Teaching a foreign language as `lingua franca�. Grazer Linguistische Studien 16, 83-88. Janssen, H. (1999). Linguistic dominance or acculturation - problems of teaching English as a global language. In C. Gnutzmann (ed.) Teaching and Learning English as a Global Language, Native and Non-Native Perspectives.T�bingen: Stauffenburg. pp. 41-55. Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford. Strasbourg); Jenkins, J. and Seidlhofer, B. (2001). Bringing Europe's lingua franca into the classroom. The Guardian Weekly. Online on: www.guardian.co.uk/GWeekly/Story/0,3939,475315,00.html (19.04.2001) Kachru, B. (ed.) (1992). The Other Tongue. 2nd edn. Urbana and Chicago:University of Illinois Press. Mackiewicz, W. (1998). "Wie viele Sprachen braucht die EU? Zeitschrift f�r KulturAustausch 1/1998 Meierkord, C. (1996). Englisch als Medium der interkulturellen Kommunikation.Untersuchungen zum non-native-/non-native speaker - Diskurs. Frankfurt/Main: Lang. Piepho, H.-E. (1989). Englisch als lingua franca in Europa. Ein Appell zur didaktischen Bescheidenheit an das Fach Englisch und seine Vertreter. In Kleinschmidt, E. (ed.) Fremdsprachenunterricht zwischen Sprachenpolitik und Praxis. Festschrift f�r Herbert Christ zum 60. Geburtstag. T�bingen.41-49. Raasch, A. (2001). "Sprechen Sie europ�isch?" und "Sprechen Sie europ�isch!". Zeitschrift f�r Erwachsenenbildung IV/2001 Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2002). Why should linguistic diversity be maintained and supported in Europe? Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe: From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education Strevens, P. (1980). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Pergamon. Viereck, W. (1996). English in Europe: its nativisation and use as a lingua franca, with special reference to German-speaking countries. In Hartmann, R. (ed). 1996. The English Language in Europe. Oxford: Intellect: 16-23. Vollmer, H.J. (1998). Fremdsprachendidaktik im Aufbruch: Zwischen Selbstverst�ndnis und Fremdverstehen. In: Gogolin, I., Kr�ger-Potratz, M., Meyer, M.A. (1998) (eds.). Pluralit�t und Bildung. Opladen: Leske + Buderich. Vollmer, H. (2001). Englisch und Mehrsprachigkeit: Interkulturelles Lernen durch Englisch als lingua franca? In D. Abendroth.Timmer and G. Bach (eds.) Mehrsprachiges Europa. Festschrift f�r Michael Wendt zum 60. Geburtstag. T�bingen: Narr. 91-109. Zimmermann, R. (1984). Pragmalinguistik und kommunikativer Fremdsprachenunterricht. Heidelberg: Groos. 1 Ministerium f�r Bildung, Wissenschaft und Weiterbildung,Mittlere Bleiche 61, 55116 Mainz 1 ...read more.

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