• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effects of Title IX of the Educational Amendments 1972 on Sports Provision in the USA.

Extracts from this document...


"No person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal aid." This is an excerpt from Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972. One section of this law, Title IX, prohibits discrimination against girls and women in federally funded education, including in athletic programs. Over the past couple decades the amendment has led to an enormous amount of advancements for women in education. Despite the improvement, Title IX has also led to a massive amount of controversy within the world of high school and collegiate sports. Due to the requirement of equal funding for men and women's sports, many men's high school and NCAA programs have been cut or diminished to fulfill the requirement. Title IX might have attributed the progress of education for women but is it a matter of reverse discrimination rather than gender equality? When introduced, Title IX was revolutionary, and a wonderful thing for the sports world. It not only opened doors for millions of young women, but it created doors where there had only been solid walls before. Women everywhere found ways to become involved with athletics and set the foundation for a healthy lifestyle. Now, however, Title IX has become a detriment to colleges. Rather than increasing the number of female athletes, athletic departments have found they need to cut the number of male athletes in order to comply. ...read more.


the institution is "fully and effectively" accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex. (Reynolds 2003) The Departments Office for Civil Rights encouraged schools to look at the three-prong test and consider which of the tests best suit their institution. This allowed each institution to have a range of flexibility in complying with Title IX. The problem is that many schools felt the only way to comply was to go along with the substantial proportionality prong. As a result, in order to get the numbers to be equal to that of the student body, many schools have had to cut many men's programs. Despite the popular use of only one of the three prongs, the Departments Office for Civil Rights stands tall with their system. They constantly attempt to make it clear that each of the three prongs of the test is an equally sufficient means of complying with Title IX, and no one prong is favored. They also attest that it is not Title IX that is forcing the cut backs in men's sports but those put in a place of decision making at each institution who chose how it is that they want to comply with Title IX's three-prong test. In some cases a schools decision to cut sports in order to comply with Title IX has led to a lawsuit. An example of this would be Miami University. The university formed a committee to address the issue of Title IX compliance and hired a consultant as well. ...read more.


Many people feel that these recommendations would further complicate the compliance issues because they would allow universities greater freedom in demonstrating that they are complying with the 1972 law. In a statement after reading the commission's recommendations, Myles Brand, the new leader of the NCAA, said, "as well-intentioned as the commissioners were, the recommendations simply provide too much opportunity for mischief in the implementation of Title IX (Commission's 2003)." The athletic director for women at the University of Texas, Christine Plonsky had agreed with Brand. "The commission had a difficult task, given the time frame," Plonsky said. "It was a comfort to read that Secretary Paige will not consider non-unanimous recommendations. I also agree with Dr. Brand, however, that any alteration of the law would negatively impact equity in opportunities and would be harmful." (Commission's 2003) The commission also acknowledged the problem of schools attempting to comply with Title IX by the elimination of men's teams. The Department of Education released a statement that included they will view the elimination of men's teams as a "disfavored practice" for achieving Title IX compliance. (Reynolds 2003) In general the effects of Title IX have been very positive in equalizing the playing field for both men and women. The debates about Title IX will certainly continue as the Department of Education has noticed some flaws in the way that certain institutions choose to comply with Title IX. Hopefully they will somehow figure out a way to ensure the safety of men's sports while at the same time allowing women's sports to continue growing as they have been since the introduction of Title IX. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Education and Teaching section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Education and Teaching essays

  1. What is inclusive education?

    Deppeler, J & Harvey, D. (2004). "Validating the British Index for Inclusion for the Australian Context: Stage 1." In International Journal of Inclusive Education 8 (2): 155 - 184 11. Flem, A, Moen, T & Gudmundsdottir, S. (2004). "Towards inclusive schooling: a study of inclusive education in practice."

  2. Theories of Motivation in Education.

    They say that humans look for meaning in their lives and that meaning transcends any animalistic drives. In their words, "even starving people are not immune to the lure of higher values." Think about van Gogh. So it may be suggested that humanism ignores the unconscious mind and the qualitative

  1. Bilingual Education. In this essay I examine the issues at the heart of ...

    The leader of the pro- proposition movement was Ron Unz, who authored and largely financed the campaign. Unz is a known conservative Republican Silicon Valley millionaire. He was lambasted by academic linguists among others in one typical criticism Leistyna asserts that 'If we truly want to raise the English-speaking skills

  2. It is not sufficient for teachers to rely entirely on the schools behaviour policy ...

    However, teachers have reported that the operation of a common system removed from them much of the hassle involved in managing pupils' behaviour and allowed the class to work more efficiently (Wilson, 2004). Evidencing Q standard 3(b) it is therefore the responsibility of the school to make teachers aware of

  1. Mary Wollstencraft. I will focus on educator Mary Wollstonecraft and her work A ...

    She is a failed mother, typifying the trivial sexualised female, obsessed with appearance and living an empty self-gratifying life aimed at male admiration' (4:Todd;2010). Mary's such loathing of women wasting their time and ability to seemingly be the plaything of men and not being educated adequately to be good mothers is apparent.

  2. Analysis of children's play as shown in E100 DVD Hospital Play from the Open ...

    Within my own setting, we very much let the children explore and investigate the new activity and resources themselves so they can use their own imagination, 'ICT toys are good for imaginative play', e.g. mobile phones, laptops etc[p6][p7]. This enables us to observe each child individually and see what they can do when left to their own devices.

  1. Phonological Awareness (PA). Study after study has consistently linked the level of PA ...

    Recognizing letter sound patterns also contributes to accurate spelling. PA is a critical skill, without it the learning process is disrupted. In today's society PA is even more important than before. Educators and professionals in the field of speech language pathology are keenly aware of this fact. In a recent interview Dr.

  2. UK SEN Provision Examined.

    These children can be catered for equally in mainstream or special settings. The Warnock approach and ensuing Education Act 1981 had a welfare outlook where the state's responsibility was handed down to the LEA's. The Warnock framework didn't include any diagnostic criteria, previously learners were categorised along the medical model on the basis of their handicaps.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work