• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The role of the adult in children's play.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The role of the adult in children's play. The purpose of this essay is to identify roles adults can take within children's play and how these roles support the children and influence learning. Children come from diverse backgrounds and bring to early years settings their own previous learning experiences and interests. Adults within settings have a responsibility to provide support to these children, encourage participation in a wide variety of meaningful experiences and build reciprocal relationships through meaningful interactions. This combination gives children the opportunity to gain confidence in their own abilities and become increasingly more independent in their learning and communication, a concept relating to the Ministry of Education's (1993) New Zealand Curriculum Framework Principle of encouraging students to become independent and life-long learners. For adults to extend on children's learning and development and promote self-esteem, effective adult-child interactions are required. Research work carried out by Tizard and Hughes (1984, cited by Coltman & Whitebread, 1996, p.23), suggest a strong relationship between self-esteem and school achievement. In creating early years settings, which foster adult-child interactions, support can be given by adults, in ways, sensitive to the children's individual needs and capacities so that self-esteem is developed, which in turn benefits future learning. Docket & Fleer (1999) suggest three roles adults can undertake to support children in their play, these being, 'Manager', 'Facilitator' and 'Player'. 'Managers provide indirect support by planning suitable play spaces, time for play and meaningful resources and materials for the children to interact with. ...read more.

Middle

Fisher (1996) expresses a view that children learn by using language; suggesting that as children experiment and practice language skills they are able to use language for a range of purposes. By mediating amongst the children in a non-threatening manner adults are able to encourage the children to express their views and thoughts, valuing their opinions and respecting them as individuals and in doing so children begin to understand the concept of 'give and take' in communication and learning, as outlined in the Ministry of Education's (1996) Te Whariki Principle of 'Relationships'. Through adult-child interactions children gain confidence in their abilities to express themselves, benefiting future learning as they ask questions, confirm understanding and express opinions in effective ways. By playing alongside children, in a similar way (termed parallel play), adults can closely observe the children and determine developmental stages and find out what thing are currently of interest to the children. Adults can then find suitable, meaningful ways to extend and complicate current levels of understanding with the aim of enhancing learning. This form of interaction takes consideration to Vygotsky theory of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), whereby interactions with peers and adults form a basis for construction of new knowledge and understanding (Dockett & Fleer 1996). As a child tips water into different size containers they discover concepts relating to maths and science. An adult can extend on this further by parallel playing and talking about the discoveries, developing communication skills and introduce new ideas. ...read more.

Conclusion

Adult-child interactions enable adults to support the children, build positive reciprocal relationships, extend on learning and model desired behaviours. It is therefore important that adults create an environment, which fosters these interactions. Adults support the children indirectly by setting up the environment in ways, which promote play and adult-child interactions and direct support given when interacting with the children through mediation and playing with and alongside the children. The ways in which the adults adopt these roles will directly determine the extent of the learning outcomes. Reference List Coltman, P., & Whitebread, D. (1996). My mum would pay anything for chocolate cake. Organising the whole curriculum: Enterprise projects in the early years. In D. Whitebread, (ed). Teaching and learning in the early years. London: Routledge. Cullen, J. (1998). What do teachers need to know about learning in the early years? Key note address to Early Childhood Development Unit seminar, "Promoting Positive Partnerships", Auckland, 23 April. Dau, E. (Ed.). (1999). Child's play. Revisiting play in early childhood settings. Australia: Australian Early Childhood Association. Dockett, S., & Fleer, M. (1999). Play and pedagogy in early childhood: Bending the rules. Marrickville, NSW: Harcourt Brace & Company. Fisher, J. (1996). Starting from the child. Buckingham: Open University Press. (Chapter 1). Ministry of Education. (1996). Te Whariki. He whariki matauranga mo nga mokopuna o Aoteroa. Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media. Ministry of Education. (1993). The New Zealand curriculum framework. Te anga marautanga o Aotearoa. Wellington: Learning Media. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 5 of 7 - Assignment 2 Nicola Hammond - 02234823 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Teaching section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Teaching essays

  1. Subject Pedagogy

    argued for a national strategy in creative and cultural education to ensure a broad and flexible education, that acknowledged the talents of all children. The report contained various recommendations, which requested further work and investigations into creativity and cultural education.

  2. Secret Of Childhood

    When adult restricts the child from taking things, the child's constructive movements will be destroyed. A child wants to imitate the adults in household work is trying to improve his intellectual progress. A child's movement is not due to a chance.

  1. Child Initiated Play Observation. My observation of Child M took place in play ...

    Parents or carers should safely supervise all activities, especially if they are near water. Being outdoors has the added benefit of providing children with space to carry out 'gross motor' activities such as jumping, running, climbing and leaping at different speeds.

  2. The vitality of the Welsh language and the bilingual future of Wales.

    Morris Jones (in Morris Jones and Singh Ghuman 1995:103-105) details two other ways in which experiences away from teaching and the classroom can be in Welsh. One is through the Youth Movement Urdd (Urdd Gobaith Cymru - the League of the Hope of Wales), which was already mentioned in chapter 4.2.

  1. How do the teachers think they foster a desire for lifelong learning in the ...

    I joined a discussion with the teacher and support worker. I took an immediate interest as they were talking about the individuals from the group I had observed as 'de-motivated' in the class. One of the groups is regarded as having a sharing SEN so the worker has devised an IEP for her.

  2. importance of play

    Every child is unique, and has his/her own imagination that he/she can't share with his friends or anyone else. Most theorists have different views about how play is important in the child's life (e.g. Albert Bandura (born in 1925). Albert Bandura argues that people learn from what they see and

  1. Report on how children develop and learn

    Evidence of this type of behaviour and positive self esteem can be seen in Observation 1, in the Appendices. Whereas, permissive parents have relaxed ideas about behaviour and discipline, which has a predisposition for their children being disobedient, impulsive, demanding and dependent on adults, rebellious, angry and lacking in self-control.

  2. Reflective Essay on Play and Early Childhood

    that some of both free play and adult-led play is needed to ensure a well-rounded learning experience. In the below table, we can see how an adult?s role can be key for facilitating learning. Although the child is in control and directs his/her own playing experience, the adult is there to enhance the child?s understanding of the activity.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work