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Trace the historical development of physical education and discuss the effects that these developments have had on your opportunities to develop performance in your chosen activities.

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Introduction

Trace the historical development of physical education and discuss the effects that these developments have had on your opportunities to develop performance in your chosen activities The historical development of physical education has had a significant effect on my opportunities and personal performance. I will be investigating the effect of historical development of physical education by looking at various Acts made during the past two centuries, especially in schools and the various forms of physical education lessons which have been used in the past. In the nineteenth century there were two distinct traditions in education - Public Schools and State Elementary Schools. Public schools were for the gentry and were fee paying. They were usually non-local, residential and were single sex schools. The students played many games and concentrated on the characteristic of leadership and teamwork. They would regularly play these games and develop the rules which had recreational values. The facilities were good due to the fees paid. Physical Education has developed dramatically in public and private schools since. Education in this country started with private schooling for the social elite. Pupils enjoyed extensive facilities and focused on the 'character building' aims of education, as preparation for responsibilities in later life as employers, officers, members of the clergy and so on. Competitive team games developed to serve these aims. There was always a concentration on sport rather than a physical education emphasis and this is still common today. Competitive fixtures are a recognised feature and the reputation from winning helps to distinguish different schools. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century State Elementary schools were for lower class people. ...read more.

Middle

The Model Course was a major development of physical education. This course encouraged a policy of drills and physical training, but little recreational value. In 1902 the Model Course was instituted by Colonel Fox of the War Office. The aim was to improve the fitness of working class for military preparation, increase familiarity with combat and weapons, and improve discipline and obedience amongst the working class. The drills were done in uniform, in military rows with the students obeying commands. The problem was, they were teaching adult exercises to children. This model was not taking the needs of physical and mental development into account. There was no educative content and individualism. The teachers were not qualified and were of a lower status. Due to the problems the Board of Education established syllabus' of physical training in 1904, 1909, 1919, 1927 and 1933. These stressed the physical and educative effect of sport. The physical content of the syllabus was influenced by the primary concern for medical and physiological base from which they approached the subject. Therapeutic effect, correction of posture faults, exercises to improve circulatory system were foremost in the aims. The educational aims were to develop alertness and decision making. The 1919 syllabus had consideration in loss of life in World War 1 and the flu epidemic after. The 1933 syllabus was more do to with the freedom of movement and was more decentralised. There was a recognition of the increasing rights of the working class and development of educational value of group word. Millions died in World War I, and so public schoolmen had ideals of service to the country and were enthusiastic about conflict. ...read more.

Conclusion

Over the years people have also come to realise that sports can greatly benefit overall fitness including reducing the risk of dying prematurely, reducing the risk of dying from heart disease, reducing the risk of developing diabetes, reducing the risk of developing high blood pressure, helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure, reducing the risk of developing colon cancer, reducing feelings of depression and anxiety, helps control weight, helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints, helps older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling and promotes psychological well-being. Due to realising theses developments the government has produced better sport facilities which can also aide in our development of physical education. In conclusion it can be seen that all of these periods in history have contributed to the development of sport. They have increased the amount of opportunities that we have and the facilities have greatly increased. Due to many of the Acts and the National Curriculum we are now free to participate in a much larger variety of activities and not only do we involve ourselves in physical activities but we learn the educational side of sport. I think that through the times the physical education system has improved and now we have more freedom to do what we want. I think that it is good to have physical education compulsory to a certain age as it is an attempt to keep children informed of the benefits of health and fitness and can keep the children more lively and enthusiastic about sport. Charlotte Body ...read more.

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