• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What is inclusive education?

Extracts from this document...


What is inclusive education? Inclusive education is concerned with the education and accommodation of ALL children in society, regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, or linguistic deficits. Inclusion should also include children from disadvantaged groups, of all races and cultures as well as the gifted and the disabled (UNESCO, 2003). Inclusion tries to reduce exclusion within the education system by tackling, responding to and meeting the different needs of all learners (Booth, 1996). It involves changing the education system so that it can accommodate the unique styles and way of learning of each learner and ensure that there is quality education for all through the use of proper resources, suitable curricula, appropriate teaching strategies and partnerships within the community (UNESCO, 1994). Inclusion will not happen instantaneously but requires careful planning and thinking, positive attitudes and behaviour and utilising the necessary specialised support, accommodations and adaptations to ensure all children become part of the school (Burstein, Sears, Wilcoxen, Cabello & Spagna, 2004), actively participate in the education system and later become fully contributing members of society (Department of Education, 2001). Inclusive education is about ensuring that schools can meet the needs of all learners. It is thus the responsibility of an inclusive school to embrace the diversity and special needs of all its learners, (Flem, Moen & Gudmundsdottir, 2004) identify and minimise the barriers to learning (Department of Education, 2001) and create a tolerant and respectful atmosphere in which people are valued and stigmatisation is minimised (Carrington & Robinson, 2004). All children thus need to be given the support they need so they can achieve success, feel a sense of security and belong to a community (Iarskaia-Smirnova, & Loshakova, 2004; Burke & Sutherland, 2004). Inclusive education also recognises that learning occurs both at home and in the community and therefore the support of parents, family and the community is vital (Department of Education, 2001). ...read more.


Other studies have shown that inclusion can work if there are positive learner-staff relationships, the utilisation of different teaching strategies, high teacher morale, collaborative reflection and learning (Carrington et al., 2004; Ainscow, Booth & Dyson, 2004), ongoing training and professional staff development, variation and flexibility of educators, the utilisation of existing resources within the school, community support (Flem et al., 2004), ongoing support for teachers, and the need to plan for change, be committed to the change process and prepared to make the necessary changes (Burstein et al., 2004). It is also necessary to have education support and resource centres available to the educators and at least one teacher's aid (Wong, Pearson, & Kuen Lo, 2004). Working from a multidisciplinary approach where different specialists get together to support the learner have also helped inclusion be successful (Forlin, 2004) Based on the success other countries have had and the research that has shown that inclusion is beneficial to both children with and without barriers to learning, I feel South Africa should follow the principles of inclusive education and begin the process of making parents and teachers aware of the benefits of inclusive education. As long as we learn from the failures of other countries and build on their successes (ensuring that there is adequate training and support for the teachers, necessary resources in the schools, appropriate modifications, collaboration, positive attitudes, flexibility, the use of varying teaching strategies and individualised goals set for each learner), inclusion can work in South Africa. Teachers' readiness for accommodating diversity and what should be done to facilitate proper implementation of inclusion in schools/classrooms It has been found that inclusion is most successful when teachers received intense training for working with learners who have disabilities (Jobe, Rust & Brissie, 1996). It is therefore essential that the teachers in South Africa feel prepared to face the challenges that inclusion will bring. Studies have shown that many teachers, although they feel that children with disabilities should have a right to be educated in the general classroom, do not believe that the learners will cope in the general classroom (Flem et al., 2004) ...read more.


Jobe, D, Rust, J. O, & Brissie, J. (1996). "Teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities into regular classrooms." In Education 117(1), 234-245. 17. Peck, C. A, Staub, D, Gallucci, C & Schwartz, I. (2004). "Parent Perception of the Impacts of Inclusion on their Nondisabled Child." In Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 29 (2): 135 - 143 18. Raschke, D & Bronson, J. (1999). Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games. Received from the World Wide Web on 20th July 2005. Web Address: http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html. 19. Schmidt, M. W & Harriman, N.E. (1998). Teaching Strategies for Inclusive Classrooms. Harcourt Bruce College Publishers: New York. 20. Sharpe, M., York, J, & Knight, J (1994). "Effects of inclusion on the academic performance of classmates without disabilities." In Remedial and Special Education, 15, 281-287. 21. Stroeve, W. (1998). One of the Kids: Educating children with and without disabilities together in the same classes and schools. Received from the World Wide Web on 20th July 2005. Web Address www.aare.edu.au/03pap/hea03769.pdf 22. Turner, N. D & Traxler, M. (2000). Children's Literature for the Primary Inclusive Classroom. Delmar Thompson Learning: Africa. 23. UNESCO. (2003). Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education: A Challenge & a Vision - A Conceptual Paper. Received from the World Wide Web on 20th July 2005. Web Address: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001347/134785e.pdf 24. UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. Received from the World Wide Web on 20th July 2005. Web Address: http://www.unesco.org/education/information/nfsunesco/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF 25. UNESCO. (2005). First Steps: Stories on Inclusion in Early Childhood Education. Received from the World Wide Web on 20th July 2005. Web Address: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001102/110238eo.pdf 26. UNESCO. (2001). Including the Excluded: Meeting Diversity in Education. Received from the World Wide Web on 20th July 2005. Web Address: http://dit-fs1.hq.int.unesco.org/ulis/docs/0012/001226/122613eo.pdf 27. Van Kraayenoord, C. (2003). "The Task of Professional Development." In International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 50 (4): 363 - 365 28. Wong, A. I. P, Pearson, V & Kuen Lo, E. M. (2004). "Competing philosophies in the classroom: a challenge to Hong Kong teachers." ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Education and Teaching section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Education and Teaching essays

  1. Discuss the behaviourist and cognitive theories of learning. Evaluate the implication of each for ...

    When observed by infra-red cameras, the babies were seen continuing to reach for the object. The second stage is the pre-operational stage, aged 2 to 7 years, Piaget and Inhelder (1956 cited in Cardwell and Flanagan 2009) carried out their 'three-mountain' experiment.

  2. Language Development. I have chosen to observe Kaitlin for my assignment focusing on ...

    I always relate to this as it supports my role as an early years practitioner. I always relate to the 5 key outcomes when taking care of children and planning activities. This is to ensure all children have equal opportunities, stay safe and promote their welfare.

  1. Describe the difference between the pre-normalised and normalised child.

    He uses the order in his environment to order himself and his mind. "Above all it is to be noted that the child has a passionate love for order and work, and possesses intellectual qualities superior by far to what might have been expected". (Peace and Education, Chapter Pg. 38).

  2. How the montessori directress assists the child in his psychic development.

    Small objects (1-2yrs): A fixation on small objects and tiny detail. Co-ordination of movement (2&1/2-4yrs): Random movements become coordinated and controlled; grasping, touching, turning, balancing, crawling, and walking. Social aspect of life (2-5yrs): Paying attention to other children while developing affection and friendship.

  1. Explain how practical Life Exercises in the home and Montessori school can provide the ...

    The activities help the child master the skills that he needs in order to become increasingly independent. He learns activities of daily living. Montessori saw that very young children were frequently frustrated in their attempts to do things for themselves and that what they needed was to have specific exercises,

  2. Piaget and education. Examine the work of one modern thinker on education and ...

    A key point in this stage is 'object permanence' is when the child knows an object is there even though it is not visible for the time being (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969). The second of the four stages is Pre-operational stage which is from the age of two to six to seven years.

  1. This assignment will look at certain aspects of the Wolf report. At a ...

    Only time will tell whether Mr Gove's gamble with 'Troops for Teachers' pays dividends and increases productivity and reduces disruptive behaviour in our classrooms. Experience has demonstrated that the whole ethos within a military environment is the reason why their classes are non-disruptive.

  2. It is not sufficient for teachers to rely entirely on the schools behaviour policy ...

    and that is why I think most teachers choose to employ it. However, in some situations where I have not observed the lining up procedure being performed there has been a good reason for it. The main problem was the position of the classroom entrance along the corridor.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work