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The overall objective of this laboratory experiment is to investigate the effects of proportional, derivative and integral control on system performance, in particular transient response (overshoot, speed of response) and steady state error.
From this figure, we calculate the average acceleration (counts/ ), as given by the encoder by carefully measuring the velocity difference and dividing by the time difference (500ms) through the positive-sloped linear segment: The hardware gain is represented by the following relationship: kkw = kckaktkpkeks Eq.1 Where: kc, the DAC gain, = 10V / 32,768 DAC counts ka, the Servo Amp gain, = approx. 2 (amp/V) kt, the Servo Motor Torque constant, = approx. 0.1 (N-m/amp) kP, the Drive Pulley ratio = 3 (N-m @ disk / N-m @ motor)
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The goal of this lab is to understand the dynamic parameters behind a second order oscillatory system. We will see how different inertias, spring coefficients and damping coefficients will affect the natural frequency and damping ratio of the system
Simply comparing the constants in R(s) and G(s) will yield two equations Eq.2.1.1-1 and Eq.2.1.1-2. (Consider kR(s) and G(s) to be equal.) Eq. 2.1.1-1 Eq. 2.1.1-2 Once we find appropriate values for ?n and ?, the above equations will give values for bsystem, k, and J. 2.1.2 Inverse Transform of the System Transfer Function Some useful relationships pop up when we perform inverse Laplace transform to G(s). Eq. 2.1.2-1 Eq. 2.1.2-2 By the definition of damped natural frequency, we know that. When we substitute t0 to G(t) and divide it with G(tn) we get . Eq. 2.1.2-3 Since t0 and tn are chosen at the peak of the graph, where and reaches its maximum, we can simplify the above equation down to Eq.
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Floating crane design. The following report presents an over view of a floating crane design that based on a small laboratory pontoon. The model pontoon is to represent the floating crane. Starting from the experiment to observe the circumstances under w
* Utilising a known movable weight positioned on the deck at approximately the middle of the longitudinal centreline and a pendulum hanging inside the vessel. * The weigh(jockey) W is moved from the centreline a known distance (?x)towards the side and this moves the centre gravity of the pontoon from centreline to a new position * This causes the vessel to tilt,the angle of tilt (??) is being measured by the pendulum. In order to obtain a good accurate laboratory readings * Centralized jockey weight correctly, the plumb bob line was central and the bob was not snagging on the scale.
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Regenerative Medicine. This report highlights the process by which, within an acceptable timeframe, viable articular cartilage can be produced, and transplanted back into the patient, ending the potentially debilitating degradation of the native cartilag
(Ochi, M. et al 2002) Osteoarthritis affects 8 million people in the UK, many more in America, and these numbers are sure to grow considering the aging population of 1st world countries. The continuing obesity epidemic coupled with the typical western diet of processed, denatured and pasteurised foods will amplify the problem inflating the demand for tissue engineered cartilage worldwide.
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* The third part is Manufacture, this looks at how the mechanical system should be constructed with the users in mind. * The final part is Safety and Hygiene. The extracted oil is to be used for food preparation etc, so hygiene is a factor to be aware of. Background Hemp is a name that is used in order to refer to at the whole species of the plants known as Cannabis. Hemp products have been used for over 10,000 years; they are useful for making ropes and clothes due to their strong fiber.
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The process in which biomass converts this light energy into chemical energy is through photosynthesis. This is the process of converting carbon dioxide and water to sugars and oxygen using solar energy. The equation of this process is: (Equation 1) Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light -->Sugar + Water Plants efficiency of converting solar energy into chemical energy it is very low; it is about 3-6% . It is this low because otherwise the plants can be damaged by the light and can lead to damage of the photosynthetic systems . Comparing this to other renewable energy systems, for example, solar panels which have a far higher efficiency of anywhere between 7%-40% .
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Microwave Electronics - the Network Analyzer experiment. In this lab, we have used the Hewlett Packard HP8720 Network analyser to measure the S-Parameters for some simple devices.
By connecting the instrument to various microwave networks a wide variety of precision measurements can be made . And the final part is use of the reflection/transmission test set to observe variations in the amplitude and the phase of the test device over a range of frequencies . Various devices have been thus tested, including stub tuner, horn, and micro strip patch antenna. The procedures are given in details in the next sections of the report. The explanations given do not go into too much depth of the theories of the subject because the experiments were aimed at only giving a brief introduction of the functions of the equipment (the Network Analyser).
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CAD Techniques for RF Electromagnetic. The aim of this experiment is to give experience in using a modern microwave network analyzer, the HP 8720. This will provide an understading into the principles of swept frequency measurement and show how S-paramet
For this we use a Vector Network Analyser, often referred to, without qualification, as a Network Analyser. This instrument has two microwave inputs, the REFERENCE input and the TEST input, and gives as output the relative amplitude (dB) and phase (deg.) between the two inputs. By connecting the instrument to various microwave networks a wide variety of precision measurements can be made. And the final part is use of the reflection/transmission test set to observe variations in the amplitude and the phase of the test device over a range of frequencies .
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The objective of this experiment was to determine the compressive strength of 3 brick pillars of varying construction and 3 100mm3 mortar cubes, all of which coming from the mix used in the pillars.
63.4 568.0 9 214.9 102.4 64.1 548.6 10 214.4 102.4 63.7 511.1 Average 214.1 102.5 64.0 547.5 The bricks shall each be defined as a 'masonry unit made from clay or other argillaceous materials with or without sand, fuel or other additives fired at a sufficiently high temperature to achieve a ceramic bond' (BS EN 771-1:2010). In this instance the bricks are known to be clay, though the age or date of delivery to the laboratory of the specimens are unknown.
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- 7.5 = 3.9 10 - 9.3 = 0.7 23 12.5 - 7.5 = 5 10.2 - 9.3 = 0.9 25 14.2 - 7.5 =6.7 10.4 - 9 = 1.4 Calculation: In calculation part, we are using the equation, Z= (?2r2)/ 2g ? = 89rpm = (89x2?)/60 = 9.32 rad/sec When r = 2cm = 0.02m Z= (9.322 x 0.022) / (2x9.81) = 1.77 x 10-3 m = 0.177 cm When r = 4cm = 0.04m Z= (9.322 x 0.042) / (2x9.81) = 7.084 x 10-3 m = 0.7084 cm When r = 6cm = 0.06m Z= (9.322 x 0.062)
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The levelling instrument is set up at different points around the Horton building, depending on the position of the manhole covers. A scaled levelling staff is placed on the manhole cover holding by one person. The observer then reads the measurement on the levelling staff through the levelling instrument and records the readings. In order to set up the levelling instrument correctly, we have to ensure that the horizontal line of collimation of the levelling instrument is perpendicular to its vertical axis using a method called "Two Peg Test".
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This report focuses on the heat recovery system which use the heat from the gas turbine exhaust gas to produce steam. e report has a detailed design of the economizer and evaporator where as the steam drum, gas stack, pumps and duct burner are discussed b
The capital cost of the HRSG unit is �65100. The operating costs which includes the fixed and unfixed cost is �286000. The main raw material being used in a HRSG is water, which is converted to steam. Water at 60p/tonne for 8000 working hours a year costs , �120000. The plant is designed to be highly efficient as well as being safe. Hazard studies were carried out at different stages to ensure the safety of the staff as well as the equipment. 2. Introduction Civ-Chem Engineering Solutions was approached to design a effluent treatment plant and a CHP.
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I organised my objectives based upon how much experience and the requirements which should be met to gain maximum improvement of competency based on their assessment as it shown in table 1. AIPM assessment Levels Level 4 (CPPP) Level 5 (CPPM) Level 6 (CPPD) AIPM requirement Approximately 2-3 years' experience as a project officer 3 years' practical experience as a project manager 5 or more years' experience in directing multiple projects ICB assessment Levels Level C (CPM) Level B (CSPM)
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Although the use of control measure is in most cases involved with mechanical equipment, they can also be used in fields such as (e.g. in the social, biological or in different other systems). The science of achieving control, by using or not using feedback, is the method of control theory. This is applicable to system control in general. Most control systems have evolved by the practice of trial and error, for the critical design of system controls with the need for extensive analysis of two factors, the control devices and the process.
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Computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The CFD method is an important method to determine the flow characters of submerged jets into cavities.
Based on the value of Reynolds numbers, the types of flows can be divided as below. Laminar flow generally happens when dealing with small pipes and low flow velocities. Laminar flow can be regarded as a series of liquid cylinders in the pipe, where the innermost parts flow the fastest, and the cylinder touching the pipe is not moving at all. In turbulent flow, the vortices happens, eddies and wakes make the flow unpredictable. Turbulent flow happens in general at high flow rates and with larger pipes.
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K.C.Dwivedi Enrollment No.: 0371704404 Dr. J.K Ghosh NIC ID: 9238 Mr. Pravin Srivastava Tecnia Institute of Advanced Studies Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Delhi GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY National Informatics Centre This is to certify that Miss Dhruvika Patel ID.N0-9238 a student of MCA from Tecnia Institute of Advanced Studies (Institute/University) has done his/her full-semester project training at Training Division, NIC, New Delhi, from Jan to May.The project work entitled "Inventory Management" embodies the original work done by Miss Dhruvika Patel during his/her above full semester project training period.
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This document explains the significant activities and experiences gained within 32 weeks (8 months) of industrial internship at SONY EMCS (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. The objective of the industrial internship is to integrate theories learned in UTP with hands-on
The Industrial Internship Projects and Main Activities is an important chapter as all significant activities during internship and chores will be explained in this chapter respectively. Lessons learned and experiences gained translate all knowledge especially about manufacturing industry practices that were obtained throughout the internship period. This also includes the teamwork and individual activities, the leadership and management skill development, and the problems and challenges faced. In the following chapter, recommendations are made for the Host Company and university for future program improvement.
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Finally, the research will explore the technologies, both readily available and those being developed, which can establish companies as leaders in combating the CO2 emissions problem. Transport Companies do realize the effects of climate change and the need for new policy to reach the goal of lowering CO2 emissions. The research now needs to be done on the necessary technologies required and how policy will help shape and govern these technologies that will eventually reach the milestone of decarbonization. The issues are dependent upon one another however.
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Environmental Issues in Engineering Projects. This paper will be discussing about the environmental impacts and its assessment on each of the phases of the engineering projects and its evaluation throughout the project lifecycle.
Engineering and manufacturing industry has increasing use of metals, plastic, oil and rubber which are used in the production of numerous end products which can be associated with different industries such as Car production units, shipping industries, Cotton mills, plastics industries, Coal mining, heavy machineries and etc which are causing numerous arduous effects and are considered to be non-environment friendly. Engineering and industrial wastes can be one of the mundane environmental issues which are referred as Anthropogenic (Eoearth, 2008). The term anthropogenic is used in the light of common waste caused by engineering and manufacturing industries which can be chemical waste, metal waste and toxic gas release that can pollute water, land and air severely.
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