• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Determination of Toluene By Gas Chromatographic Method

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Experiment 5 Lab Report Determination of Toluene By Gas Chromatographic Method Module Name: Fundamental Analytical Chemistry (Practical Section) Date of experiment: 16/10/2007 Introduction: Gas chromatography is a specifically gas-liquid chromatography that involves a sample being vaporized and injected onto the head of the chromatographic column. The sample is transported through the column by the flow of inert, gaseous mobile phase, which is usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The column itself contains a liquid stationary phase, which is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside glass or metal tubing that is adsorbed onto the surface of an inert solid. The instrument used to perform gas chromatographic separations is called a gas chromatograph. A gas chromatograph is a chemical analysis instrument for separating chemicals in a complex sample. A gas chromatograph uses a flow-through narrow tube known as the column, through which different chemical constituents of a sample pass in a gas stream (carrier gas, mobile phase) at different rates depending on their various chemical and physical properties and their interaction with a specific column filling, called the stationary phase. As the chemicals exit the end of the column, they are detected and identified electronically. ...read more.

Middle

Injection 2 37091520 9386726 Unknown 1 Sample 1 Injection 1 19637872 17390980 14001504 12632516 Injection 2 15144088 11263528 Unknown 1 Injection 1 14390448 13539784 13046920 12395596 Sample 2 Injection 2 12689120 11744272 Unknown 2 Injection 1 13885472 14136844 7647261 8076117 Sample 1 Injection 2 14388216 8504973 Unknown 2 Injection 1 14865376 15788384 8390445 8671136 Sample 2 Injection 2 16711392 8951827 Table 2: Peak area ratio (Toluene to Cumene) Peak Area Ratio (corr. to. 4 d.p.) Peak Area Ratio Average (corr. to. 4 d.p.) Standard 1 Injection 1 0.9020 0.8871 (1.0 ml) Injection 2 0.8722 Standard 2 Injection 1 1.9327 1.9115 (2.0 ml) Injection 2 1.8903 Standard 3 Injection 1 3.7689 3.8602 (4.0 ml) Injection 2 3.9515 Unknown 1 Injection 1 1.4026 1.3736 Sample 1 Injection 2 1.3445 Unknown 1 Injection 1 1.1030 1.0918 Sample 2 Injection 2 1.0805 Unknown 2 Injection 1 1.8157 1.7537 Sample 1 Injection 2 1.6917 Unknown 2 Injection 1 1.7717 1.8193 Sample 2 Injection 2 1.8668 Q4.) Graph 1: Q5.) From Table 2: 1. The mean of unknown 1 peak area ratio is (1.3736 + 1.0918)/2= 1.2327 Put y = 1.2327 into y = 0.0002x - 0.0349 1.2327 = 0.0002x - 0.0349 x = (1.2327+0.0349)/0.0002 x = 6338 The toluene concentration is 6338 microgram/ml in unknown 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

The %RSD is quite close to 0 so that the result is acceptable. Q11.) From Q5, the concentration of toluene is 6338 microgram/ml, it is assumed all toluene in 6L air which adsorbed on the activated charcoal is all dissolved in the unknown solution. Since 1 L = 1*10-3 m3, 6 L = 6*(1* 10-3) m3, so the concentration of toluene (mg/ m3) in the laboratory environment = (6338/1000) mg / (6*10-3) m3 = 1056.333 mg/m3 Q12.) From Q11, the concentration of toluene in the laboratory environment is 1056.333 mg/m3. Number of moles of toluene = (1056.333/1000) / 92.14 = 0.0114644 At NTP, all gases follow the following equation: Mole = Volume of the gas / Molar Volume of air (Molar Volume of air = 24.46 L/mol) Thus, the Volume of air toluene in 6L = Mole of toluene x Molar Volume of air = 0.0114644 x 24.46 =0.280419 dm3 =0.280419 L =0.280419 *10-3 m3 Since 1 ppm = 1 * 10-6 m3/m3, so the concentration of air toluene = (0.280419 * 10-3) / 1*10-6 =280.419 ppm Conclusions: 1. The concentration of the toluene in the unknown sample solution by using internal standard method is 31.69 mg/ml. 2. The concentration of the toluene in the unknown sample solution by using external standard method is 33.38435 mg/ml. 3. Using internal standard method is more accurate than using external standard method. 4. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Engineering section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Engineering essays

  1. The object of this experiment is to determine the Liquid and Plastic Limits of ...

    gradual; however convenient to define limits corresponding to a changeover moisture content: - LL= the Liquid Limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be liquid and becomes plastic PL = the Plastic Limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be plastic and beomes a semi-plastic solid.

  2. Atomic absorption spectroscopy. In this experiment, the characteristics of flame ASS instrumentation will be ...

    If the slit is too wide, the light will be too high and the signal-to-noise ratio may be excellent. On the other hand, if the slit is too narrow, the resolution may be excellent but the signal-to-noise ratio may be poor due to the reduced light throughput.

  1. Low-cost Information Technology in Developing Countries: Current Opportunities and Emerging Possibilities.

    While the benefits of new information technologies have accrued largely to developed countries, there is a broad consensus concerning these technologies' significant potential for the social and economic progress of developing countries. IT can be usefully applied to most of the major problems of development.

  2. Liquid Liquid Extraction Experiment

    involved are large and several contacts are needed, continuous flow becomes economical. If the components of the original solution distribute differently between the two liquids, separation will result. The component balances will be essentially identical to those for leaching, but there are two major differences which are the carrier phase

  1. Engineering Managerment 1 Coursework

    There are several steps involved in building the House Of Quality; all are all geared to ensure that the needs of the customer are achieved. This method has advantages ranging from the increased efficiency of the company, reduction in design cycle, decreasing start-up costs as well as delivering a quality product/service to the customer.

  2. Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry. To measure different concentration (one or two substances) of solution, ...

    Solving for the substance concentration yields the desired amount of sample substance. The length of light path and the molar absorptivity are known constants for the given sample.When a solution obtains two different substances, the presence of the second component will cause a change to occur in the light absorbing properties of the first component.

  1. Value Stream & Value Stream Mapping

    From here they then start moving down the line through the previously mentioned stages of SHEAR, PUNCH, etc. The parts are transported from stage to stage (depicted by the black and white stripped arrows); note that in this case an inventory of items is maintained between processes.

  2. Heat Conduction Lab. The objective of this lab was to learn and understand ...

    is shown, and a linear relationship can be observed, proving the linearly proportional relationship between mass flow rate and heat transitions. It can be observed that the temperature profile of the Parallel Flow heat exchanger follows the theoretical temperature profile as shown in Figure #3 in the lab manual [3].

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work