• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13

Steel Reinforcement Tension Test

Extracts from this document...


Introduction: Steel Reinforcement Tension Test can be conducted in two experiment session: * Two deformed grade 460 high yield steel bars * Two plain round grade 250 mild steel bars Both steel bars conform to the relevant requirements of BS 4449:1988; have a nominal diameter of 20 mm, and a length of approximately 800 mm. Objectives: * Practice tension testing of steel bars as reinforcement for concrete according to Hong Kong current standards. * Determine geometrical and mechanical properties of steel reinforcements including nominal cross-sectional area, yield stress, tensile strength, nominal stress at fracture, and elongation over gauge length, reduction of cross-sectional area at necking section, and modulus of elasticity. * Check compliancy of the determined properties of the steel reinforcements with relevant Hong Kong standards. Apparatus: 1. Testing machine equipped with an extensometer with a plotter for drawing load-extension curve (fig. 1) Fig. 1 2. straight edge (fig. 2) Fig. 2 3. A caliper (fig. 3) Fig. 3 4. A metal saw for making marks on the specimens (fig. 4) Fig. 4 5. weighing equipment (fig. 5) Fig. 5 6. metal ruler (fig. 6) Fig. 6 Procedure: i. The mass (M) and length (L) of the bars were measured. The diameter of plain mild steel bar (Dp) was also measured. Dp is used in this experiment to calculate sectional area for comparison with the area derived from mass. ii. The specimens were slightly scribed at regular intervals using the metal saw. iii. The specimen was clamped into testing machine. iv. The extensometer was mounted on the specimen and the gauge length (Lg) ...read more.


The differences of the mild steel and high yield steel bars are shown below: Mild Steel High Yield Steel Appearance * Plain * Deformed Composition * Carbon 0.1-0.25% * Mn 0.5% * Carbon 0.6-0.99% * Mn 1.5% Properties * Good machinability * Ductility * Weldability * Toughness * Greater yield strength * Lower ductility Recognition * High density * High stiffness * become rusty easily in damp atmosphere * High density * High stiffness * More springy * More friction Cost * cheaper * comparatively expensive Products * Window frames * Pipes * Rivets * High strength wires * Bolts * Springs 3. Why their loadings are different? There are two factors affect the loadings. Firstly, it is because of the difference on the content of manganese(Mn). Manganese can stiffening the steels and improve the loading capacity. So, high yield steel bars (1.5%) have better loading than Mild steel (0.5%) because of the higher manganese content. Secondly, is because of the appearance. Deformed steel have greater surface area and the uneven surface, it can have more friction than plain steel. The higher friction can be a good support for loading. So, the high yield steel bars take the higher loading. 4. Comparison of the Young's modulus (E) between high yield steel and mild steel The elastic modulus of high yield steel bar is lower than that of mild steel bar. However, it is not reflect the strength of the steel. The modulus of elasticity is to measure the stiffness. It is not related to the strength. As Young's modulus (E) ...read more.


5. There may be some errors when we are reading the results. We should look carefully on reading of the meter of the machine. It is because the steel bar would drop very quickly when the steel bar has broken and the machine cannot apply the loading of the steel bar.It Will break suddenly on a particular meter and the reading of the meter would not stop when the sample fails. Conclusion: The table has shown the calculated results on nominal Area, yield Stress (nominal), tensile strength, stress at fracture, Young's modulus, percentage elongation over gauge length, percentage reduction of area of samples respectively. Sample Mild Steel High Yield Steel A B C D Length (mm) 800 800 800 800 Mass (kg) 1.9917 1.9917 1.9176 1.9367 Nominal Area (mm2) 317.15 317.15 305.35 308.39 Maximum load (kN) 150.9 142.2 189.8 191 Load immediately before the fracture (kN) 128 124 125 139 Extension (mm) 35 33 22 23 Diameter after stretching (mm) 13.95 14.62 12.97 13.19 Cross sectional area after stretching (mm2) 152.84 167.87 132.12 136.64 Yield stress 280.62 277.47 514.16 518.82 Tensile strength 475.8 448.37 621.58 619.35 Young's modulus 192915.08 210311.89 173960.05 184619.73 Stress at fracture 403.59 390.98 409.37 450.73 % elongation over gauge length (%) 35 33 22 23 % reduction of area (%) 51.81 47.07 56.73 55.69 After the steel reinforcement tension test, we found that high yield steel has higher loading capacity compared with mild steel bars. It is shown in the part of yield stress, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, percentage elongation, reduction of cross-sectional area and the part of nominal stress at fracture. The uneven surface of the high yield steel bars provided more friction and hardness. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Engineering section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Engineering essays

  1. Universal Tensile Test on Mild Steel and Brass Specimens

    The material from the grips of the machine was removed. The average of various diameter measurements around the breaking point was recorded. 8. The new gauge length was measured and recorded. 9. The whole procedure was repeated for the other specimen.

  2. The object of this experiment is to determine the Liquid and Plastic Limits of ...

    gradual; however convenient to define limits corresponding to a changeover moisture content: - LL= the Liquid Limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be liquid and becomes plastic PL = the Plastic Limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be plastic and beomes a semi-plastic solid.

  1. The aim of this laboratory experiment is to examine the tensile strength of three ...

    % C at 1154 °C." (1) EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE In order to complete this test, three tensile test specimens, each of different carbon content, are given. Also a tensometer machine is available in order to tense the specimens. The machine works as follows: Firstly, the specimen is placed on the machine and a force pulls it along its length.

  2. Tensile test report.

    The tensile test could be improved by repeating the test several times for each of the specimens to improve the accuracy of the results. From the experiment I learned that Duralmin is the strongest of the metals, Copper and Steel are the most ductile and also that Steel is very stiff.

  1. Pulling things appart - The following experiment was designed to determine some of the ...

    we calculated the slope of a line composed only of data points from the linear (elastic) region of the stress-strain curve. Note that for the white polymer sample, the initial portion of the stress-strain curve was highly non-linear. A secant modulus and a tangent modulus (Callister, 1997)

  2. Statics - Tensile Test

    the results and plotting the graph we can evidently see that Sample A and B are ductile materials and have very high failing points. On the other hand, Sample C fails almost immediately after starting the tensile testing; this indicates that it is a very brittle metal.

  1. Three basic types of materials were used in the experiment. They were a) mild ...

    It will not return to its original, unstressed condition if the load were removed. Several points on the graph can be defined: A - Limit of Proportionality The point beyond which Hooke's Law is no longer obeyed. The graph is linear up to this point, and begins the transition from elastic to plastic deformation above this.

  2. tensile test

    It corresponds to the onset of plastic deformation. In brittle materials and plastics, the point where the materials move away from linearly is often hard to define. In a brief, at this point, the deformation is purely plastic. C - 0.1% Proof Stress A third point is sometimes used to describe the yield stress of the material.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work