• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

European Union

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

As elections for the ratification of the European Constitution approach it is interesting to look at what direction Europe is headed in. While some scholars argue that the rallying of the euro and the possible passage of the Constitution show signs that Europe is a "superpower in the making" I fail to see this reality. The current trends and factors in Europe include problems with enlargement, the EMU, and the failed Lisbon agenda, point to the EU becoming "a ruined fortress". The current economic performance of EU countries is horrific, with economic growth some 50% lower than the United States and unemployment hovering around 10% in France and Germany. While there are no simple answers to the question of Europe's future it is clear that there are both advantages and disadvantages of enlargement, the EMU, and the Lisbon Agenda. The argument for the EU being a "superpower in the making" is supported by the benefits in expansion, the creation of a single currency, and the push for economic revitalization. As Europe drives to become a superpower it has met many problems in managing its growth both internally and externally. The failed policies of the EU will lead to "a ruined fortress" in the near future, possibly even this summer with a "no" vote on the constitution. ...read more.

Middle

The fact that six years after the implementation of the euro the economies of Europe have lagged behind the United States shows the bankruptcy of the EMU. There have been conflicts over the implementation and economic policies that show when pressed countries will revert to protect the nation-state, "The conflicts over the Stability and Growth Pact are the inevitable result of a monetary union bereft of strong federal institutions and social solidarity"5 . The EMU is a construction that does not have the backing of all EU members, as the pressure is not there on members to follow the spirit of these treaties. Citizens have allegiances to their countries before the EU and if the trust is there they will not pressure politicians to abide by Brussels rules. The examples of France and Germany violating the Stability and Growth Pact are the most glaring, "the stability and growth pact pledges members of the single currency not to run budget deficits of more than 3% of GDP, a commitment that is again enshrined unchanged in the constitution. Yet France and Germany are on course to violate the ceilings for four years in a row, and seem happy to continue doing so"6. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the end the current controversy surrounding the ratification of the EU constitution shows the bankruptcy of the policies of the EMU and the Lisbon Agenda. The EU is set up by a series of treaties that are either followed or shunned by the desires of individual nation-states. The EU constitution ratification difficulty shows the problems the EU faces moving forward. Hutton's assertions of the euro solidifying a continental economy are undermined by the reality of the current economic situation, as growth and unemployment figures don't support his claims. In theory enlargement, the EMU, and the Lisbon Agenda, all possess qualities to support a more powerful EU that could be considered a future "superpower". The fact remains that this is all on paper as none of these initiatives have been completely proven or positive. 1 Van Oudenaren pg. 361 2 ibid 3 Hutton, Will. Pg. 365 4 Boltho, Andrea. "What's Wrong With Europe?" New Left Review 22 July August 2003 pg. 14 5 Cafruny, Alan. "Europe, the United States, and the Neoliberal (Dis) Order: Is There a Coming Crisis of the Euro?" Pg. 287 6 The Economist June 19, 2004 7 Boltho, Andrea. "What's Wrong With Europe?" New Left Review 22 July August 2003 Pg. 5 8 BBC News March 22, 2005 9 Hutton, Will. Pg. 325 10 BBC News March 22, 2005 11 BBC News March 22, 2005 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree 2000-2099 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree 2000-2099 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Is History a Nightmare

    5 star(s)

    Foucault argued that during the eighteenth century new epistemic systems or discourses emerged producing 'modern' notions of 'self'. Disciplines and institutions arising from demography, medicine and pedagogy formed 'technologies of sex' to discipline, shape and regulate bodies in the interest of a 'power'.13 In this respect, power can be understood

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Is History a Science

    4 star(s)

    For instance we know that humans are mammals, this is a scientific fact. This however cannot be applied to history, because historians 'advance a different interpretation from that of the previous historian studying the same subject'.10 Evans point is that historians question and argue against each other's points, scientists don't argue against Einstein's theory of relativity.

  1. History Extension Major Work Postmodernism . It is the feature of postmodernism and ...

    aimed at the youths of the time such as Elvis and later through the development of Rock music. This was also a period of great change. Events such as the beginning of the Cold War (and the space race and arms race that was involved in this), the Kennedy assassination,

  2. What did the Cronulla riot of December 2005 and its aftermath reveal about Australian ...

    Many of the Shire residents look at Cronulla beach as "the jewel in the crown" for Shire residents and also saw cronulla as the epitome of classic Australian lifestyle18. Many residents saw the Lebanese visitors as destroying this lifestyle with their rude and derogatory behavior, many of the young residents

  1. Politics is power - the Iraq inquiry. A good example of power within ...

    Blair mentioned regime change for the first time.' (bbc.co.uk, 2009) The inquiry has also reached members of the public who have had relatives killed in Iraq, they have criticized the wars legitimacy and are bitter about their family members dying for a war in which the public seemed to of

  2. Decision Points by George W. Bush and A Journey by Tony Blair. Are political ...

    had long decided that a war was needed with Iraq and in a National Security Council meeting during 9/11, Rumsfeld, had asked his staff to seek any information that could directly implicate Saddam Hussein and Iraq for taking a lead role in orchestrating the attacks11.

  1. Why, if at all, is History important to society?

    Jordanova sees this control over history and what it focuses on by arguing history ?shapes the forms such curiosity is permitted to take.? Public history for the masses it is argued is less important to the individual when it is manipulated, as nothing can be learned from it.

  2. What is the purpose of a museum? Answer with reference to at least three ...

    To the public who have an amateur interest in history and archaeology, museums serve as an important outlet for that interest and hobby. Henry Cole, the V&A?s first director, declared that ?museums should be a schoolroom for all? (V&A website, A Brief History of the Museum).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work