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University Degree: Ancient History
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
He argues that the effect of Suez spread widely, particularly in Africa, and in the three years following the crisis Britain's pre-Suez policy of gradually introducing self-government to the indigenous population leading on to independence, 'was replaced by one of rapid scuttle.'2 Lapping continues saying that Suez was, 'an imperial cataclysm; the principle cause of the suddenness with which decolonisation broke across Africa in 1960.'3 He also argues that until 1956, despite some decolonisation in the Far East and parts of North and West Africa, the imperial powers had shown no inclination to leave their remaining African colonies.
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way to increase his revenues so he could keep what power he had in Germany over his most influential vassals, something his imperial court pursued vigorously. The authority over the Papal States in such a feudal system meant in theory he was ruler of Rome, but ever since the Commune directed against the papacy had been established in 1143 in Rome the debate had been vociferous and complicated. This would not only create a united and strong empire, it would also question the role of regalia in the papacy.
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In the De Aedificiis, however, the picture is uniformly flattering. The emperor and empress shared a common piety4, he claims, and her loveliness was such that it was impossible to convey it in words or portray it by a statue5 (Even in the Anekdota, he concedes that she was attractive, though short and rather sallow in complexion6). Procopius' viewpoint differs in these three works, understandably in the De Aedificiis, which was an encomium and intended to please the emperor, but they do not actually contradict each other.
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During the peace and prosperity of Roman rule, intellect began to blossom in previously backwater areas of Europe. The collapse of the Roman Empire, towards the end of the 5th century, brought science to a standstill. Arab invasions cut Western scholars off from the Greek stores of knowledge, and barbarian invasions threw Europe into chaos. Learning survived only in the monasteries, the symbols of the strengthening religion which would for centuries impede scientific progress. The Middle Ages (476 - 1450), often known as the Dark Ages, was a time of relative stagnation on the scientific front. The Roman Catholic Church reigned supreme in Western Europe, and their outlook focused on theology and the inferiority and imperfection of man in the face of God.
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Anthony J. Spalingers book, War in Ancient Egypt is an introduction to the Egyptian war machine during the era of the New Kingdom. Spalinger, a well respected Egyptologist, mainly discusses Dynasty XVIII and the era of the Ramesside period.
During the XVIIth Dynasty, much of Egypt was controlled by an Asiatic group of peoples known as the Hyksos. The Hyksos first began migrating into Egypt around the start of the Middle Kingdom and the XIth Dynasty. The name Hyksos translates to both "rulers of foreign countries", as well as "Shepherd Kings". The Hyksos were thought to be nomadic peoples that over time, began to grow and populate the area of the North in Egypt. As the Hyksos grew, so too did their affect on Egypt.
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TO WHAT EXTENT DID THE ADOPTION OF IRON IN GREECE AND THE AEGEAN FOLLOW THE SAME PATH AS IN CYPRUS AND THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN (2)
Important role to the history of the island played a rich discovery of copper deposits during the 3rd millennium BC. This was one factor the led to the emergence of Cyprus as a naval power and the establishment of trade relations with the Mediterranean. The Age of Bronze (1600-1050 BC) in Cyprus is over and a new age, the Age of Iron is emerging. Archaeological findings show that Cyprus held a pioneering role in the technology development of the iron (Peter Haaren, 2001 and Myhly 1992,700).
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Battle of Kadesh. Through this paper I will critically analyze the primary and secondary sources pertaining to the Egyptian battle at Kadesh between Ramses II and the Hittite king, Muwatallis, in an attempt to clarify what in my opinion transpired and wha
From the onset of his reign, Rameses II's intention to renew a struggle for southern Syria is evident. He can be seen preparing for the coming hostilities, expanding the eastern Delta city of Pi-Ramasses, his new capital, to act as a staging point for operations in the Levant. In his fourth regnal year, during the summer of 1275 BC, Rameses led his army into southern Syria for the first time as king, succeeding in returning the Amurru kingdom to the Egyptian fold.(Kitchen 51)
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Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut, the 5th King of the 18th dynasty, however stands out as an ambiguous personality, a rare yet prominent female ruler in a history dominated by men. My focus is to establish how her reign is understood, her accomplishments, and her
As inferred from available records, Hatshepsut was satisfied with the titulary associated with being Tuthmose II's principal wife, as we see no records of her associated with any other royal titles during his reign(Redford 1967:74). However, we see a divergence with normal Egyptian accord of the time, shortly after the passing of Tuthmose II. Hatshepsut comes into prominence during this time and is considered by most as fulfilling co-regency duties with her successor to the throne, Tuthmose III, the son of Tuthmose II from a 'lesser wife'.
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Would Hannibal Barca have benefited from island hopping from Massilia, through Corsica directly to Rome, so that he could evade crossing the Alps? And what effect would this have had on history?
it is said that Hanibal swore to his father that "so soon as age permit... I will use fire and steel to arrest the density of Rome"3 After Hannibal's father was killed in battle. Hamlicar's brother, Hasdrubal became commander of the Carthaginian Army and made a peace Treaty with Rome. This treaty stated that Carthage would not expand above the Erbo River. When Hasdrubal was assassinated Hannibal became the Carthaginian army commander. As commander Hannibal completed the conquest of Hispania in two years. When the city of Rome made an alliance with the city of Saguntum (which was a city considerably far south of the Erbo River)
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Mesolithic food. The hunting of mammals remains central to the Mesolithic even if they were not the main food supplies some areas. Although they may have required more effort to hunt, animals provide range of nutrients that other food sources do not supp
The evidence for the exploitation of red deer in Ireland during this period is unclear. It has been suggested that he reasons for this is due to the species not appearing until very late in the Mesolithic or the early part of the Neolithic (Barry 2000, 6). Larger mammals in Europe ranged from red and roe deer, elk, brown bear, auroch, wild boar and pig, wolf, polecat and as well as reindeer. These larger animals provided a greater amount of calories compared to shellfish or plants and also served as a source of materials such as hides and bones for tool making (Cunliffe 2001, 106).
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Archaeological Controversy. The Bosnian "pyramids". Mr Osmanagic also thinks the findings around the hills of Viscocica will have further repercussions for prehistory. He compared the size of the biggest pyramids in the regions of Egypt and Mexico and st
His view on this is that colonists spread from here to the rest of the world, colonising areas of Bolivia and have even been responsible for the building of the Sphinx. Hancock puts this together by using farfetched geological observations and isolated finds of artefacts. Ignoring genuine archaeological arguments, such as where are the traces of these civilisations to be found around the world. Been an ardent believer in his own theories, Hancock, being a crafty writer, has managed to put out a top selling book that reads like an Agatha Christie whodunit?
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The aim of this essay is to examine the environment and settlement of some of the regions of Mesolithic Europe that provided hunters and gatherers with many different avenues in which to exploit their means of survival in the areas in which they inhabited
With the preservation organic remains, a clearer picture can sometimes be gained into the reason why settlements were placed in the regions in which they were occupied. The excellent preservation from coastal and rivrine sites around Europe presents good evidence of this. This can be seen from Mesolithic sites along the Northern and Baltic parts of Europe (Cunliffe 2001, 115). Tagerup in Sweden is one of the largest Mesolithic sites in the region represents a typical example of a hunting and gathering settlement, and sits on a hill where two rivers converge.
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Ritual human sacrifice. The use of human sacrifice in different rituals has featured largely in many cultures for thousands of years. To better understand this one must first consider and define what is actually meant by the term ritual.
(Wilkinson, 1999) was excavated 455 bodies were discovered. Members of the king's personal household numbered 338 (Shaw, 2000, p68). Also, the bodies of 77 female and 41 important male employees shared the grave of Wadji's queen, Mernieth. Many of the servants buried with their employers were deliberately killed for the purpose often by poison. Others, not so lucky, were buried alive as attested to by their contorted bodies when they where excavated (Lewis, 2006, p267). Mesopotamia The Sumerians were one of the first cultures to arise in Mesopotamia, in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates on the Persian Gulf now known as the Middle East.
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One potential issue with coinage is that it has in the past been regarded as non-primary evidence. This is particularly true with respects to coins of the Ancient World. However Roman coins, at the very least, can be seen as a 'great and permanent state institution' (Sutherland, 1976, Preface) and as such we should treat coins as very much primary evidence. They provide a valuable insight into the way society was constructed and what was considered important. For example, Augustus began to appear on the Empire's coins, when he effectively became emperor, whereas Early Republican coins rarely had the head of state appear on the obverse of the coin.
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Our contemporary views are massively bias as the vast majority if not all of how ancient sources come from Athens which was particularly hostile towards Philip. This is understandable as Philip had raised the Macedonians to become a great power which threatened Athens. Even so it is interesting to read Demosthenes with the inferences made that Philip's rise to become the 'greatest monarch who ever appeared in Macedonian' (Olynthaic I, 9) was more due to the Greek's refusal to fight and seize the opportunity to dispose of him than of Philip's own prowess.
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A Source Report on a Stele from Athens. The stele (also called stelai) of Aristion, so called because it is inscribed with the name of a man, probably a warrior, named Aristion.
people and animals such as maidens, lions or horsemen, these being most common between the late seventh to the sixth centuries BC (Richter, 1961, pp.1-2). The stone stelai became prevalent after these along with the 'sculpture in the round' which was another basic form of gravestone in Archaic Attica (Kurtz and Boardman, 1971, p.84). The stele was found in 1838 in one of the mounds at Velanideza, which is around two-thirds of the distance between Sparta and the east coast of Attica (Buck, 1888). This in itself is in no way different from where we might expect to find stelai.
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The army's most obvious involvement in politics comes in the form that the Emperor's relied upon them to maintain power. Especially after the civil wars of AD 68-69 which showed that a general with the support of the army could seize power. Even if the newly proclaimed Emperor did not receive his titles officially until they were given to him by the Senate, he was still effectively Emperor as soon as his troops proclaimed him so. Most Emperors would receive an acclamation after his primary address to the Praetorian's or legionnaires with him.
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Cleopatra and Antony. Plutarchs view of the relationship between Antony and Cleopatra was that, on the one hand, Antony was mad in love with her, where he abandoned his old lifestyle to embrace her way of living, but on the other hand he was neede
Many people say that Cleopatra did what she felt was necessary to save Egypt, whatever the price she would have to pay. (http://www.touregypt.net/cleopatr.htm). Antony was bewitched by Cleopatra's charm and intelligence; he's love for Cleopatra was portrayed as madness (book 1, Reputations, p.9). On the second part of this passage we can see that Antony was willing to impress Cleopatra at any cost.
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Architecture has a way of telling a story in history. The Tomb of Queen Hatshepsut tells a story about her life as being a pharaoh during the Eighteenth Dynasty.
The pharaohs needed a separate room because their belongings would be buried with them. The Egyptians took death seriously. This would be shown through the many chapels a pharaoh would have in its temple. You can also tell that the Tomb of Hatshepsut had a connection to death by the drawings of her life and her accomplishments throughout her reign. If you think about it, American people today put pictures up at the funeral home after someone passes away to show their life. The after life was eternity for the Egyptians. In front of Queen Hatshepsut's cult statue, priests could make daily offerings of food, drink, music and incense that would allow the dead king's soul to live forever.
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The skull of the skeleton is at a right position; the left arm and the right leg are slightly bent. According to the preliminary bone report3 and the accompanying grave goods assemblage were used to determine Grave 96a as male.
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and no field-walking has taken place near it. This barrow cemetery, according to Mark Bowden contain nineteen round barrows of various forms, of which fourteen survive but according Timothy Darvill contains eighteen round barrows. It's mostly excavated in the early 19th century by William Cunnington and Sir Colt Houre, who found several burials and cremations, with grave goods. Unfortunately some of them had been opened by previous antiquarians - so we have no record about them. Based the new field survey (earthwork, aerial photographic, grave goods, cremations and inhumations evidence )
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The introduction of pay to the position allowed no reason for confining the archonship to the richer classes. In the same way that the post of archon became more open, the post also lost a lot of its power such as increasing the number of archons to nine and reducing the abilities of the Areopagus which was inevitably made up of ex-archons. The final state of the Archons was one of much less unchecked power; many of its powers of judiciary were diluted to the popular courts and other powers conferred to the Ten Generals. In direct contrast to the archon, who was supposedly the executive of Athenian democracy, the Spartans had monarchical kings.
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Then we shall look at the long consulship of Marius and the 'dictatorship' of Sulla as the turning point which lead to the increasingly despotic rules of Pompey, Caesar and Augustus. In order to determine whether the failure of the republic was predetermined by the way in which it was structured we must look at its failure from a chronological point of view and note any key events which may have signalled a 'point of no return'. The start date of the 'Crisis of the Republic' is open to interpretation but this essay will take it to be the date
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Warlords, Artists and Emperors: Power and Authority in Premodern Japan. Ancient Japan Portfolio - commentaries on passages.
To sum it up, the ritual rebuilding of the Shrine of Ise is seen as a symbol of the renewal of life and tradition. Entry#2 (Week 3): Reading: Piggott, Joan. 'Shomu Tenno, Servant of the Buddha.' Emergence of Japanese Kingship, Stanford U. P. 1997, 236-279. This reading primarily explores the reign of Shomu, Temmu's great grandson, who ruled as a Tenno. Shomu is seen by some scholars as a Buddhist King who was responsible for the Great Buddha located at Todaiji, Nara's Great Eastern Temple (p.236).
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Peloponnesian Politics: What can the events between the First Macedonian War and the Achaean War tell us about inconsistencies in Roman foreign policy in the Peloponnese and Peloponnesian reactions to it.
Presumably, the purpose of these envoys was to seek approval and recognition of their endeavours against the piratical Illyrians. Nothing more is heard between these two until the Macedonian wars. The Achaean League threw its lot in with Philip V of Macedon during the First Macedonian War (Eckstein 2008: 113). By the Second Macedonian War in 200 BC, Rome had freed up its forces by defeating Hannibal in the Second Punic War and thus could exercise more force against Philip, which did not just include using its armies, but diplomacy too. The Romans actually managed to convince the Achaean League to change sides and to support Rome (Eckstein 2008: 285).
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