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University Degree: Medieval History

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  1. Medieval Viking Tactics

    Ship building and seafaring were their lifeblood, and they even took their ships with them to their graves. Archeological excavations of Viking burials at Oseberg and Gokstad in Norway revealed real boats buried with dead Viking warriors. These vessels are now in an Oslo museum. The long-ships were known to the Vikings as a "surf dragon" and an "oar steed," and these vessels varied in length from about 20 to 30 meters to than in length. The long-ships were propelled by oars, sails, and crews ranging from 25 to 100 Viking warriors.

    • Word count: 965
  2. Achilles, Aeneas, and Roland

    The Illiad was an epic written by a Greek poet named Homer. It takes place in the last days of the Trojan War. Achilles was an integral part of the war. He helped raise the Greek soldiers' moral, he was an excellent fighter and swordsmen, and he killed Hector, who was the leader of the Trojan forces and son of the King of Troy. It is said that Achilles was half man and half god. He is the offspring of Peleus, King of Thessaly, and the sea nymph Thetis, who had dipped her infant son in the river Styx, thus making him invulnerable except for the hell by which she held him.

    • Word count: 964
  3. What methods did Pope Urban utilise to persuade, Christians to join the Crusade?

    can substitute the journey for all penance for sin." 2Moreover, all versions of PUII's speech to the crusaders mention and preserve the idea of 'Sin Removal', additionally PUII often referred to the Crusaders as 'Gods Armies', 'Warriors of Christ', and 'Shield of Christ'. This dialogue was aimed at Knights, Lords, Princes and their martial powers of European Christendom. PUII sought after a mechanised army with financial resources, which could be ordered as opposed to Kings who would covet to command. This deliverance by the Pope would have ignited the ideologically conditioned Christians throughout the content.

    • Word count: 607
  4. Origins of medieval European Christianity England

    1 The Gezerot Tantu questions the religious motivation behind the Crusade and intentions of the Crusaders. Furthermore, it enables depiction in alterations of Christian ideals, particularly with their Jewish brethren. Jews and Christians have coexisted for centuries in general harmony and peace. St. Augustine of Hippo utilised Jews to strengthen Christianity. Augustine and his supporters believed Jews "must be allowed to survive, but never to thrive"2 this was so that their communal desolation would transmit their "proper punishments for their refusal to recognize the truth of the Church's claims."

    • Word count: 769
  5. the civil wars

    Puritans in both Britain and British North America sought to cleanse the culture of what they regarded as corrupt sinful practices. They believed that the civil government should strictly enforce public morality by prohibiting vices like drunkenness, gambling, ostentatious dress, swearing and Sabbath breaking. The puritans acquired the label because their primary goals were to "purify" the English church by removing all traces of Roman Catholicism in doctrine and ceremony. Strongest in the 16th and 17th centuries, they advocated strict religious discipline and placed primary emphasis on the Bible rather than on traditions developed in the Christian community.

    • Word count: 967
  6. Early medival europe

    Without the domination of Rome and its "Great Tradition," regional elites became more self-sufficient and local "small traditions" flourished. Self-sufficient farming estates called manors were the primary centers of agricultural production. Manors grew from the need for self-sufficiency and self-defense. During the early medieval period a class of nobles emerged and developed into mounted knights. Feudalism was developed. Feudalism is a medieval social system: the legal and social system that existed in medieval Europe, in which vassals held land from lords in exchange for military service.

    • Word count: 521
  7. Scottish is known as Scottish Standard English (SSE) considered. SSE is the form of the English language used in Scotland. It is normally used in formal, non-fictional written texts in Scotland.

    Lexis General items are outwith, meaning outside of; pinkie for little finger; doubt meaning to think or suspect; and wee, the Scots word for small. Correct is often preferred to right meaning morally right. Culturally specific items like caber, haggis, and landward for rural. There is a wide range of legal and administrative vocabulary inherited from Scots. depute /'d?pju?t/ for deputy. proven /'pro?v?n/ for proved, and sheriff substitute for acting sheriff. Phonology Pronunciation features vary among speakers, and there are regional differences: * It is a rhotic accent, with r usually pronounced as [r] (an alveolar trill), though sometimes flapped [?] or constricted [?].

    • Word count: 608
  8. Canada French: an island in a sea of English.

    It's Norman French the one used by de Maupassant in his short histories. There are anglicisms that have crept into France which have been rejected in Quebec but however there are lots of English words in French-Canadian and they usually come from North American society. Of course the North American world of English is not just Canada, but the United States. The whole North American continent north of Rio Grande with its power, greed, generosity, all its energy and contradictions, is English-speaking. North American English societies have had such success at assimilating other languages and they have developed almost contempt for others.

    • Word count: 491
  9. What is a revolution?

    On the other hand if popular societal examples were examined, such as the Industrial Revolution or the Sexual Revolution where there was no such upheaval of leadership or power, this notion of revolution would be inappropriate. In Touraine's book, Social Transformations of the Twentieth Century he writes, "When the twentieth century closed, the challenges and problems of the time were social, dealing with questions of work, production, social classing and social rights.2" He goes on to voice that in present day, our society is more afflicted by the results of these social phenomena than by the methods at which we reach the results.

    • Word count: 617
  10. Differences between Ancient Rome and Medieval Cities.

    One specific item that was very popular for trading was spices. It was an easy good to transport, you didn't have to pay a lot and it didn't go bad. When the boom in trade and commerce began it changed the system of feudalism into more of a city state ordeal. The cities became not only a center of trade but also cause the emergence of industry. The immergence of industry called for the division of labor. This broke up the main task into many little ones which caused the amount of production to increase tremendously.

    • Word count: 695
  11. Museum Report - The Cloisters - In medieval Europe, religion formed the center of life for almost everyone, and it created a unifying force throughout the continent. The church governed every aspect of life

    As technology developed, advances were evident in art as well as churches and monasteries. Painters developed techniques that allowed them to represent their subjects with more realism and precision. Paintings began to appear lifelike, and even three-dimensional. New methods of construction allowed stone structures to be built higher and with more intricate details, as the concern of collapse under the weight of the stone was alleviated. The mention of architecture raises the question of art versus craft, and it is a valid concern. While in today's industrialized world, there is a fairly clear distinction, this has not been the case in all societies.

    • Word count: 600
  12. Why did the renaissance begin in Italy by the 1400's? There are many reasons for the renaissance beginning in Italy by the 1400's, the result of the crusades, an increase in trade and knowledge an increase

    The black plague was a disease that killed millions of people. If it wasn't for the black plague the renaissance would have not began mainly because it broke down the feudal system in Italy and let peasants become a higher class type of person, many peasants moving to other countries then returning with wealth and new technology. This new class of people wanted bigger and better things with many villages competing against each other on who could create the best houses, sculptures and paintings, and now they had money to pay for the things.

    • Word count: 558
  13. To what extent were the revolutionaries in France and Austria responsible for their own failure?

    The 1848 revolutions were considered as a "leaderless" revolution. Most of the uprisings in the period were more like public activities without some capable and popular leaders to lead the mass. In Italy, the once considered liberal Pope Pius IX refused to take up the responsibility in leading the revolutionary forces to rise against Austrian reactionary forces. This led to the neutrality of the Papal States in the revolution and her sound existence in under Austrian restoration while the Austrian Army suppressed the revolutionaries. Another factor contributing to the failure of the 1848 revolutions was the lack of organization between revolutionary groups.

    • Word count: 716
  14. The Black Death.

    The disease probably spread from Europe to India, and then on to Italian seaports and the rest of Europe. The Black Death first appeared in Europe in Italy in 1347. It arrived on trading ships that probably came from the Black Sea, past Constantinople and through the Mediterranean. People soon learned of the horror of the disease, and fled the city, thus spreading the disease to other destinations in Europe. It reached Europe's ports first, including Messina, Genoa, Venice, Barcelona, Marseilles, and Valencia. By June of 1348, almost half of Europe was afflicted with the plague. By 1349, the plague had reached almost all of western Europe and half of central Europe.

    • Word count: 939
  15. In terms of believing in a cause no man was more fervent than Evariste Gamelin. Gamelin committed himself to the cause of the French Revolution completely.

    Gamelin embraced the ideals of the Revolution due to his desire to help others, and be a part of something, but during his time as a magistrate he lost perspective and became a producer of misery rather than a bringer of aid. Gamelin latched onto the ideals of the Revolution from the very beginning. The reader must ask oneself why Gamelin would join the Revolution, and embrace it so completely.

    • Word count: 504
  16. How did people explain the 'Black Death' ?

    The population of Europe became increasingly poor . The origin of the Black Death is not agreed upon by all historians. It is believed to have been originated from Central Asia. The plague was both spread by the Mongols as they expanded across Asia, and by Central Asian rodents that moved westward when ecological changes made their environment inhospitable. The plaque was first introduced to Europe in October of 1347. The Black Death was spread by Black rats infested with fleas who were host to the deadly bacterium Yersinia pestis.

    • Word count: 761
  17. Napoleon - Son of the Revolution ?

    He swore to be a patriot and a passionate supporter of all that the Revolutionary Republic stood for. He did safeguard all the original ideals of the Revolution, but he formed a new France, which combined elements of both the new constitution as well as the ancient regime. A classic example of blending old and new ideals is Napoleon's reforming of the Republic. In 1795 he adopted a new view that differed from his original views on politics and power. He saw that the ideals of the constitution of that year were dying. In his eyes, it had become incapable of defending the French people.

    • Word count: 850
  18. Major technological innovations changed the social and economic conditions. Explain with reference to the Agrarian and Industrial Revolution.

    Before then the methods of farming was very primitive and time consuming. Production weren't enough to meet the needs of a growing population so changes had to be made. In1931 a man named Jethro Tull invented a seed drill, a machine that scatters seeds evenly and prevented wastage. This invention sparked a train of new ideas to improve farming. Other inventions included a crop rotation system that was used to restore fertility of the soil and improve its quality.

    • Word count: 485
  19. The Black Death

    Medieval medicine or charms etc normally did not work. Some Priests led wiping processions as they believed?that the plague was caused by god as a way of punishing them. They believed that by punishing them the plague might bypass them; obviously this was all nonsense. More practical methods were herb scented vinegar which having said medieval cures were useless this one did have some affect as it contained powerful antiseptic.

    • Word count: 300
  20. Revolution 1905 - Black Hundreds

    The Black Hundreds were reactionary, antirevolutionary, and anti-Semitic groups formed in Russia during and after the Russian Revolution of 1905. One of the most important of these groups was the League of the Russian People (Soyuz Russkogo Naroda).

    • Word count: 289
  21. Write about an incident in which you had to leave a place you knew well.

    On Necromunda there are many strange creatures, but also strange people, people with psychic abilities. It could be just little things like being good at cards by sensing the opponent's hand to extremely powerful abilities like telekinesis or ignighting someone at will.

    • Word count: 369

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • The scale of the raids, the density of the settlements and the degree of destruction have been greatly exaggerated'. Discuss this assessment of Viking activity in England in the ninth and tenth centuries

    "Nils Lund claimed it was misleading to arrange numbers, influence and permanent effects co-ordinately, the latter two being the premises, the first the conclusion drawn from these. Again and again we come back to the same question of whether it is possible for a small group of invaders to effect large-scale change (and, in relation to the Vikings, destruction). As we have seen, the Vikings had a massive and permanent impact on English society, partly positive, partly negative, but always significant. Hopefully it has been established that it is not necessary for there to have been thousands of invaders for this change to happen, at least in the first place. We need to remember to see the Viking period as fragmented: the early period being a great deal more destructive; the later period more constructive, however unless significant archaeological evidence comes to light, we cannot draw firm conclusions on the scale of the Viking raids or the density of settlement, or the timescale involved."

  • To what extent did commerce flourish in this period?

    "Trade can indeed be seen to have grown during and following the eighth century but this is only relative to the period before. There are two further arguments against a view that trade flourished in this period. Firstly compared to the Roman Empire, where trade was abundant, the volume of trade is still relatively small. Secondly, throughout much of the period under consideration trade was practically non-existent following the fall of the Romans. In conclusion trade did not flourish in this period. It is fair to say that there was a period of growth after 700 but this was preceded by a period of considerable decline; therefore the growth that was taking place started from practically zero and was not sufficient to return commerce to the levels enjoyed by the Romans. However this growth is important as it paved the way for the rapid expansion and flourishing trade which can be seen at the turn of the millennium and thereafter. 2068 words"

  • Can We Distinguish Between a ‘Revolution’ and a ‘Social Movement’? To What Extent Can It Be Argued That the Age of Revolutions Is Over?

    "In conclusion it can be seen that there are some ways in which the praxis of revolutions and social movements differ, such as the degree of violence used and the participation and dedication of the members. Although revolutions are borne from social movements, very few social movements engender a revolution. The majority of social movements are of the type that do not have revolutionary intentions but aim to change specific aspects of society. It is these which now have a far greater chance of success than those with revolutionary aims. The classic type of revolution can be considered over in the West where security is tight, peoples' basic needs are satisfied, international links are strong and where there is no cause yet great enough to unite sufficient numbers of people. Revolutionary movements do however, have the potential to succeed in the developing world where hunger, mass poverty, religious fundamentalism and lack of democracy are able to fuel a revolutionary outcome. A more sophisticated, non-violent revolution, does however, seem possible engendered by a strong coalition of social movements opposed to the globalisation of capitalism."

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