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University Degree: Medieval History

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  1. 'How far did European Society become less religious as a result of the 'Age of Revolutions'?

    Other factors must therefore be taken into account, however for the purpose of this question I shall concentrate specifically upon how the 'age of revolutions' modified or altered the shape of religious consistency. This is because; in order to respond to the question as fully as possible it is necessary to narrow the answer down. Indeed, I shall be taking into account the specific examples of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Industrial Revolution within England. And we will no longer have nobles or priests "We will win, we will win, we will win,"" Equality will reign throughout the land/world And the Austrian slave will follow it.

    • Word count: 2485
  2. Account for the appeal of Cistercian Monasticism in the twelfth century

    was the work of a single man, St Bernard of Clairvaux'3. He became the abbot of Clairvaux in 1115, and began preaching and writing of the Cistercian order and its beliefs. As his writings (many of which were in Latin allowing a great audience) and teachings spread, (which they did widely as a result of his disciples) he gained a reputation as a great intellect, and people desired to be under his teaching. His great enthusiasm and 'excited spiritual energy'4 attracted people, and he 'absorbed the doctrine of the fathers of the desert; infused it with mystical theology derived from the Latin fathers...

    • Word count: 2786
  3. ‘Zapatismo was more of a reactionary than a revolutionary movement.’ Discuss in the context of the Mexican Revolution up to 1920

    That it would, half a century later, be the catalyst that would mobilise millions of Mexicans to more than a decade of violent struggle could not have been foreseen. One not insignificant faction in this mobilisation were the Morelenses who, inspired by Pablo Torres Burgos' eloquence at the meetings in his Villa de Ayala home, began to embrace revolutionary ideas. However, Burgos was a pen-pusher and thinker and, though he was popular, he wasn't really a machete-wielding land-worker's idea of the man at the vanguard of a battle-charge.

    • Word count: 2597
  4. What were the Reasons for the Successes Achieved by the First Crusade?

    The importance of these factors is exemplified with how, in their breakdown, the Frankish states struggled to maintain themselves in the face of a united Muslim world, which would use this breakdown of factors to achieve effective accomplishments against the Franks. Muslim disunity in the creation of the Frankish states was the key to its success. In addition to this disunity, the Muslim world had little knowledge of the Franks in the First Crusade, with some Arab sources confusing them with Byzantines, which were not considered a threat to the Muslim world.

    • Word count: 2457
  5. How seriously did people take claim that kings ruled with Gods blessing?

    Jones elucidates that kingship, was portrayed by the monarchy as having the divine prerogative to administrate the wishes of God and that no earthly power could influence the king?s ?absolutism?. This is certainly true by using King Richard II of England (1367-1400) as an exemplar, in which he commemorated himself as being ?the protagonist of sacred majesty?, concerning the importance of his obsession with sacred kingship by displaying ?the sun on his banners and standards?[2] , and also requesting the creation of the Wilton Diptych; a small diptych depicting the reign of Richard being blessed by the Virgin Mary along with other popular saints.

    • Word count: 2619
  6. What were the consequences of the Roman Law reception in Central Europe?

    In a Central Europe that was mostly under the spell of the retrospective intellectualism and idealism of the renaissance, some people ? mainly intellectuals ? looked to the ancient laws of Rome for a more rational, objective and orderly written law, and the advent of printing made this more possible than ever. In early modern Germany, there was a relatively clear-cut point in time from where Roman Law became the official subsidiary law. This was at the Imperial Chamber Court in 1495 where it was agreed that judges and assessors were to ?make and explain their decisions in accordance with

    • Word count: 2073
  7. The History and Importance of Chinese Literature.

    Every letter of the language symbolizes a piece of their illustrious history and tradition. The essence of the Chine literature hence, is till date enjoyed and cherished by the people of China. It has helped in maintaining cultural continuity for thousands and millions of Chinese all over the world. Their literature has held them together as a nation and no matter how modern the world became, the Chinese stayed true to their traditions and culture. China has been celebrated as a nation that has a very rich and ancient tradition not just in literature but also in philosophy, visual arts and dramatics.

    • Word count: 2225
  8. To what extent did the Black Death contribute to the decline of Serfdom?

    Henneman contends it was the political development which allowed the changes to occur[3], whilst Lerner stresses the importance of the mentalities of the peasants after the Black Death and how this contributed to the decline.[4] This essay will concentrate on Western Europe, as this is where the Decline of Serfdom was most prevalent, due to the fact that in Central and Eastern Europe the ties between land and peasant became stronger through this period. This essay will argue that the Black Death can be seen as a cause to the decline of Serfdom.

    • Word count: 2166
  9. How far did the pre-Reformation church meet the needs of the people?

    The masses needs were concerned on the immediate present and derived primarily from the basic issue of life and death. These were also concerns for the elites, however, their wealth and power could mean that they had less ?bodily? wants and also had political needs from the Church, for instance as a source of legitimising their power and working in harmony to reinforce each other. Therefore despite the problem of dealing with the inherent variability of differing needs dependent of location and class, and exceptions to the norm, which I will later discuss, very broadly it seems that the Church

    • Word count: 2340
  10. To what extent was the English Invasion of Irelandan accident, unforeseen and unplanned?

    Moreover, as well as his vassals, he hired mercenaries from all around Europe and made his invasion common knowledge, before embarking on a policy of conquest.[3] This is in stark contradiction to the Norman invasion of Ireland. The Normans were not there on a mission of conquest, but to initially help re-establish Diarmait Mac Murchada as King of Leinster.[4] Indeed, the Normans believed that they were ?restoring the fortunes of this honourable man [Diarmait Mac Murchada]?,[5] as articulated by Gerald of Wales and although he may have idealised the motives of his brethren, it reasonable that this opinion was shared by Norman forces, due to the fact their aims or monarchic restoration were clear.

    • Word count: 2557

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