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University Degree: Medieval History
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- Marked by Teachers essays 6
Of the secondary evidence available to us through the study largely of gender, again, caution is important. Often, the writing must be seen as promoting a particular point of view. It is my belief that this essay will highlight three key issues. Firstly, the study of homosexuality in the middle ages is vital for the understanding of the evolution of gay culture. Secondly, that what we term as homosexual in the Middle Ages varies enormously with today's concepts of being gay.
- Word count: 3250
If it is reasonably clear how the reformation evolved in England it is far more uncertain why these changes occurred. There is a spectrum of explanation for the reformation, ranging from pure political events as the cause to the conversion of the population at the other extreme. Although it would be unwise to claim that only one of these was prevalent, historians have disagreed as to which is the most significant. If the government was predominantly responsible for the events of reformation this would not indicate that the church or its ideology was in any sense in a poor state that demanded reform.
- Word count: 1714
What were the main causes of population decline in England from the beginning of the fourteenth century?4 star(s)
of the wealthy and the monks who kept detailed records which although useful is frustrating as they are hardly likely to be representative of the population as a whole. Though they are useful as a guide, if their death rate increases it is likely the rest of the countries did too though by what rate it is difficult to know. Hatcher describes the sources as "hard to win and treacherous to interpret."2 The best quality sources are monastic records whose problems I have already described.
- Word count: 2669
T o what extent does the Demographic Transition Model provide a reliable and accurate representation of Europe's demographic past? What are the main problems of measuring the chief variables in the model?4 star(s)
Stage One (UK pre 1760) is characterised by high birth rates, high death rates and slow rates of population growth, occurring in a traditional, agricultural society. Population levels fluctuate somewhat but there is no steady growth. There is a lack of medical care or sanitation and little use or access to birth control. Large families have cultural and religious value and are needed for agricultural labour. Mortality decline precedes fertility decline. Thus stage two (UK 1760-1880) indicates increasing rates of demographic growth, typical of a modernising society beginning the process of industrialisation.
- Word count: 3238
Europe spent the majority of the fourteenth century in an economic slump; small villages were becoming overcrowded, famine weakened the lower and middle classes, and the general public was not in a state of well being (Zeigler 32). Famine was a result of poor farming due to erosion, extreme cold weather, and inability to properly take care of the land (33). Death due to starvation skyrocketed with the rapid increase in population and the inability to feed them (34). There small wars being fought from the British Isles to the eastern most parts of Europe where the Black Death was said to originate (Mullet 21, Janis, McNeill 159).
- Word count: 3237