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- Marked by Teachers essays 3
"His Highness is now in his twenty-fourth year, of very delicate complexion and medium stature. In both face and mind he resembles his father.." This is the first, and last positive evaluation he makes about Philip. It becomes clear very quickly that he harbours numerous doubts about Philip's ability to come to power and manage different countries, when he favours being advised by a solely Spanish council, who would clearly have preference for their own agenda. "He takes excessive pleasure in being revered, and he maintains with everyone, no matter who he may be, a greater haughtiness than his father,".
- Word count: 804
Most people in England were reasonable about the protestant religion, but there were still some people who believed in the Old Catholic ways. Not many people wanted to fight about it, because for many years, they had to worship in one way and then that way was changed to another. Elizabeth did not have very strong views about this, so she tried to find a Middle Way, which would have pleased most people. She had taken people form the catholic religion and people from the protestant religion.
- Word count: 897
Elizabeth feared that because of this, English Catholics could rebel against her, and eventually, throw her off the throne. One of the short term causes that lead up to Mary's execution was the St. Bartholomew's day Massacre, 1572. This was when thousands of Protestants were massacred by the French Catholics. This suddenly increased Elizabeth's fear and suspicion of English Catholics and increased her hostility towards Mary. Moreover, when Catholic Priests arrived in England in the mid 1570's, Elizabeth's fear of the Catholic faith spreading was confirmed.
- Word count: 766
Although devout catholics would always see her as an illegitimate usurper, she could still persuade the majority of the English people who were more nationalistic than catholic, aswell as those who were protestant. She did this through her resemblance to Henry VIII. On the day of her coronation she wore her bright red hair down to play on the nostalgic feeling people had for her father and to emphasise her purity (hair in the style of a maiden). Derrick Murphy says that "Elizabeth herself was keen to reinforce the message that she was her father's daughter", and this, and various speeches that she made("we hope to rule, govern ...
The government used different methods of trying to discourage the Puritans including, "issuing decrees against unorthodox practices, increasing supervision over local clergymen, and removing ministers from their livings" (Vaughn 20). Then, in 1629, Charles I dissolved the Parliament and with this Puritans gave up most of their hopes of reforming the church (Vaughn 25, 35). John Winthrop, a former attorney, helped convince Puritans to come to the New World. On August 29, 1629, the Cambridge Agreement was signed. This gave the Puritans who moved to the Massachusetts Bay Colony a charter freeing the people from the British government and free from interference by company officers (Vaughn 58).
- Word count: 998
Since the tribes of North America had not yet developed writing systems, their literature was entirely oral. This oral literature, along with the colonists first written works, forms the beginning of the American literary heritage. Several hundred Native American tribes already populated America by the time the Europeans arrived. The Europeans didn't encounter all of these tribes at once. Explorers from many different nations came into contact with them at different times. These widely dispersed tribes of Native Americans differed from one another in government, customs, language, housing, social organization, and methods of survival.
- Word count: 632
Yet, it is arguable that Mary was thrust into the centre of this plot by revisionist views. Furthermore, it is likely that Northumberland, Westmoreland and Lord Dacre were responsible for the proposed marriage, as a front to securing their own desires for power in the revolt. However, given the evidence of Elizabeth's anti-Catholic measures in response, it is fair to assess that she feared Mary's influence in England and externally in catalysing a Catholic Counter-Reformation against her, and the Northern Rebellion showed how she would be willing to undertake such a quest.
- Word count: 587
The Puritans expected James to agree with them as he was from Presbyterian Scotland. The Puritans were very anti-Catholic and wanted him to 'purify' the church and get rid of any last traces of Catholicism. However Catholics thought James would be sympathetic towards them because of his tolerant nature and the fact that his wife was a practising Catholic. They were hoping to be allowed to practise their faith and have recusancy fines abolished. When he first came into power, James made some attempts at achieving religious harmony. He pleased the Catholics in 1603 by reducing recusancy fines to less than a quarter of what they had been previously.
- Word count: 925
Consider the arguments for and against the claim that the puritans presented a real challenge in the Elizabethan House of Commons.
That the Settlement survived does not mean, necessarily, that there were no dangers to the English Protestant Church. In Parliament the Puritans posed such a threat in the legislation that they attempted to pass through with there being two distinct areas. The Prayer Book/Common Prayer Book and reforms to the church. For example in both 1571 and 1572 parliamentary sessions, bills were introduced to reform the Prayer book, With Walter Strickland wanting to remove practises regarded as Catholic in 1571, and bill proposing the removal of some rites and ceremonies. Moreover in the 1572 session John Field and Thomas Wilcox introduced The Admonition of Parliament attacking the Church for its similarities to a Catholic style church.
- Word count: 782
How far is it true to say that the Elizabethan Church settlement was 'little concerned with religion and much more concerned with political stability?
* Elizabeth's first choice in Bishops were the Marian Bishops as they had already shown their loyalty to the monarchy despite their extreme Catholic beliefs. o Political advantages were also gained by Elizabeth from the religious settlement, that supports the argument. However these economic gains were only contributory factors compared with the political stability of Elizabeth. More importantly was the conformity of those subscribing to the religious settlement imposed by Elizabeth.
- Word count: 552
To Richards, Shay's Rebellion has never been fully appreciated because it has always been seen as only a small group of poor farmers and debtors disputing the local civil authority. In spite of these beliefs, Richards states that Shay's Rebellion was not a small group, but encompassed thousands of citizens of Massachusetts. When the Rebellion was put down, there were "eighteen death sentences, two actual hangings, several hundred indictments, and some four thousand confessions of wrongdoing."(p.43)
- Word count: 611
"Mary Queen of Scots was a villain who deserved to lose her throne and her life" Do you agree with this interpretation of Mary Queen of Scots?
In 1566 a plot was devised by Darnley and a few accomplices to murder Rizzio. One night when the Queen was with Rizzio and her ladies, the lights went out and Rizzio was then dragged outside and stabbed to death. Mary later found out Darnley was involved and this drove the couple even further apart. No sooner than she had found out about Darnley being involved in Rizzios murder, than her son, James I of England and James VI of Scotland was born. Lord Darnley and Mary were driven away from their home and hid in a castle.
- Word count: 955
There was a sound of thunder, it was the beginning of the nightmare. "James James get up its 9.30, you've got golf today with your dad", "5 more minutes" says James "No you've got to get up" replied Mary, "OK, OK I'm getting up."
James kept himself to himself. However, John, his dad, is trying to get James into golf even though James doesn't enjoy it at all. As James got up he opened his curtains hoping for rain to cancel the golf, but it was very sunny especially for late January in Newcastle. James knew it was going to be another one of those days when he goes out to experiment new hobbies with his patronising dad who looks down on James. John is a very sporty man and wishes his son was a little bit more like him.
- Word count: 708