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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    "From her arrival in 1568, Mary Stuart posed a major threat to the security of Elizabeth and her government". How far do you agree with this judgement?

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    The reason why this is the paramount threat to Elizabeth is because of the number of people who had grievances against the religion and saw Mary Stuart as the way to gain their religion back. Tied into this is the political danger of those Nobles who also had Catholic sympathies but were also in a position to challenge Elizabeth i.e. the Duke of Norfolk who was under demands from Mary Stuart to gain her release from prison by force if needed.

    • Word count: 1814
  2. In what ways has Roman Catholicism been an example of both religious tradition and dissent in England?

    Part 2 - Essay The Roman Catholic Church was widely unchallenged in England until 1533. It was at this point that the annulment of King Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon was denied. Henry VIII proceeded to sever all ties with Rome and in doing so turned his back on the many centuries of tradition of the Roman Catholic Church, an action which would, over the following 3 centuries, cause much unrest and political upheaval. It is at this point then that the dissent from the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church in England began.

    • Word count: 1370
  3. Was female rule unacceptable in early modern Europe? This narrative will be investigating the political and royal policies of early modern Europe and its reasoning behind preferring (and insisting) that only male royal blood lines shou

    The majority of Spain, Portugal and Italy remained virtually wholly Roman Catholic, which lead to many wars and disputes with bordering nations. The Royal policy of the time was to use marriage to cement literal boarders between neighbouring countries in an effort to create great nations, and also to make intangible connections that cemented power between nations creating beneficial alliances. Political and social opinion of women at the time was largely due to the writings of St. Paul in the New Testament regarding Adam and Eve, and how Eve carried out the first human sin, disobeyed God and tempted Adam with the apple.

    • Word count: 1634
  4. To what extent can Wolsey be considered the master rather than the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII

    Gwyn (2002) suggests that Henry VII took Wolsey's opinions seriously as he was rewarded with the Deanship of Lincoln in 1509. The death of Henry VII could have been the end of Wolsey's rise, but the new King, Henry VIII, made him almoner and a member of the council (Elton, 1991). This is the point from where Wolsey's career escalated (Gwyn, 2002). In order to answer the question of Wolsey's role, it is also necessary to understand the personality and aspirations of Henry VIII.

    • Word count: 1975
  5. Assess the impact of the opening of the Atlantic World in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries on the future economic development of the Caribbean region

    During this time the Atlantic Ocean served as a major highway, allowing people and goods to move easily between Europe, Africa and the Americas. These interactions and exchanges transformed European, African and American societies led to the creation of new peoples, cultures, economies and ideas throughout the Atlantic arena. The Atlantic World provides a comprehensive and lucid history of one of the most important cross-cultural encounters in human history. The European drive to expand, as well as the creative ways in which the peoples living along the Atlantic's borders were able to adopt and co-exist sustained the growth of empires,

    • Word count: 1815
  6. Anne Boleyn - historians such as G. W. Bernard, E. W. Ives and Retha Warnick are examples of scholars who continue to attempt to solve the mystery surrounding the fall of Anne Boleyn. Each attempting to answer the following questions: What events brought

    Each attempting to answer the following questions: What events brought about Anne's downfall? And, perhaps most importantly, was Anne guilty of the charges which led to her execution. In his paper, "The Fall of Anne Boleyn" historian George Bernard believes that Anne was guilty for the charges laid against her and traces her downfall to Elizabeth Browne, the Countess of Worcester. Bernard supports his theory by first discrediting historian Retha Warnicke's proposal that Anne's downfall was caused by a miscarriage in January of 1536, describing such a notion as, "extravagant speculation." Bernard recognizes that Anne and Henry's marriage was occasionally "volatile" but claims that this "does not mean that Henry had finally tired of Anne or that her miscarriage had irrevocably damned her in his eyes."

    • Word count: 1981
  7. Three Estates in France

    King Louis XVI was bombarded by a list of these grievances, or Cahier de Doleances. All grievances, no matter how absurd some may have seemed, had to be dealt with if the Monarch wanted to prevent the revolution. While Third Estate consisted mostly of peasants and merchants, it was the bourgeoisie that are credited with getting the grievances of the estate recognized. The bourgeoisie consisted of many wealthy and educated people. Many were lawyers or bankers, and landowners. At this point in history peasants were free, but lived in poverty and had to obey the remaining laws, such as state labor, and payment to the lords, but most of the peasants had owned their own land.

    • Word count: 1200
  8. In all his endeavours Leonardo favoured innovation over established knowledge and the traditions of his craft. There are examples of areas where Leonardo prevailed as a magnificent innovator, for e.g. the Sforza horse. Dedicated to the Sforza dynasty of M

    Then in Florence Leonardo learned the value of a master's skill accompanied by the talented artisans of the era There are examples of areas where Leonardo prevailed as a magnificent innovator, for e.g. the Sforza horse. Dedicated to the Sforza dynasty of Milan, aimed at his future patron Ludovico il Moro. The statue itself was a design innovation. Large statues had previously been constructed in segments, being welded, and then coated. Leonardo had planned to create a complete moulding on a grand scale.

    • Word count: 1378
  9. The Authority Conflict: Machiavelli & Martin Luther

    While Machiavelli described this evil characteristic of mankind as essential to get ahead of others and hold a position of authority, Luther considered it a problem that must be resolved by believing in Christ alone. Machiavelli had no notion of human development or progress in pursuit of ends ordained by God or by nature, and he did not condemn the Church because it strayed from the path of righteousness, as did Luther, but because it was not practical (Femia 39).

    • Word count: 1727
  10. History 1500

    This leaves for less chance of the truth being blurred by the passing of time. The Diary, on the other hand, is a secondary source, this mainly because the diary was not written by Columbus himself but by Las Casas. It was also not written at the time of the voyage but sometime after allowing for some of the accounts to be lost to time. This being the case the diaries lack some of the credibility that is available from the letter making it less useful for the purpose of historical recreation.

    • Word count: 1718
  11. After the accession of Henry VIII, England began an inevitable change towards Protestantism, which was supported and encouraged by the English People'. How far do you agree with the appraisal of religious change that took place in England 1500-1600?

    It is generally agreed that Henry VIII's motives were more personal and political, than religious. He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, who may provide him with a male heir. Church wealth replenished the almost bankrupt Exchequer coffers, after unsuccessful wars. Whilst his motivation was largely personal, Henry did use the opportunity to make his own religious views more influential. At Henry's death the main articles of faith were still basically Catholic, but prayers and the litany were now in English and there was greater access to the Bible in English.

    • Word count: 1715
  12. Long day's journey into night, the"Tyronian" tragedy.

    For example, Mary blames her husband and his tightfistedness for her addiction to morphine. Due to their mother being an addict, Jamie is unable to bring girls home, thus he visits prostitutes. Such behavior has influenced his younger brother Edmund, "making him old before his time" (35). Consequently, Jamie is at fault for Edmund's poor health. In turn, his mother, for causing the addiction by being brought into the world, as well as worsening it with his own illness, blames Edmund.

    • Word count: 1665
  13. How, and why, were Puritans portrayed on the Elizabethan and Jacobean Stage?

    He gives us proof by looking at the people 'flocking and running to Theatres and curtens, daylie and hourely, night and daye, tyme and tyde to see Playes and Enterludes, where such wanton gestures, such bawdie speeches... such clipping and culling: such winckinge and glancinge of wanton eyes, and the lyke is used, as is wonderfull to behold.'2 Stubbes, like many other writers of these tracts, is mainly against playing on the Sabbath but in this attack we can see also the concern for the 'idolatry' commanded by the stage.

    • Word count: 1727
  14. Hooker's Apology of The Church of England.

    not what the Puritans strive to describe, but on the contrary, that it's a truly Christian church not subject to any future reformation. This text is composed of three paragraphs , organized according to a coherent line of arguments relying on subtle opposition. First of all, one fundamental assumption common to the Puritans and Hooker, is that the contemporary Church of England should be based on the same model given by the Bible and the example of the early Church.

    • Word count: 1437
  15. Queen Elizabeth 1st on Religion.

    the break with Rome allegiance, and Henry 8, Edward 6, and Mary's respective reigns. * * * The Queen in her letter is addressing the bishops, and plays on the constant contrast between the pronouns "your" and "our" : "our realm x 4 ; your church; your own Romish idolatry", implying that the bishops belong to a different church and even a different universe than her and her loyal subject, though they are members of the clergy of the Church of England.

    • Word count: 1378
  16. Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony.

    It was during these charters of exploration and the hunt for a prime settlement site that England discovered Roanoke Island. Roanoke comes from the Indian word Rawenoke, meaning shell money. Roanoke Island is just off the coast of what is now North Carolina, and is surrounded by the four bodies of water including the Pamlico, Croatan, Albemarle, and Roanoke Sounds. Part of the Outer Banks is blocked from the Atlantic Ocean on the eastern coast by a strip of land called Bodie Island.

    • Word count: 1099
  17. British Civilisation - The Church of England - What are the principal motives underlying religion legislation in the reign of Queen Elisabeth?

    She applied then her religious settlement through these two essential and basic acts with the help of her chief advisor William Cecil in 1559. Indeed, as for the Supremacy question, as Henry VIII's and Anne Boleyn's daughter, Elisabeth was only aged three when the Pope considered the marriage of her parents void, and her mother sent to the scaffold. Then, she was declared illegitimate from a strict catholic viewpoint - and later excommunicated in 1570 - and subsequently lost her rights to access the English throne.

    • Word count: 1784
  18. Explain the motives behind the Elizabethan religious settlement

    Matters of religion were at the heart of the state and Elizabeth was well aware that she needed to minimise the possibilities of widespread discontent and revolt. She had known from an early age that her position of power was always volatile. She was female, single, regarded by many European Catholic noblemen as the illegitimate offspring of her father's mistress, Anne Boleyn, and significantly England was still technically at war with France. Furthermore she had inherited a kingdom which was a second-rate power, strongly overshadowed by Spain and France.

    • Word count: 1266

    by issuing contradictory instructions. However, this time her Privy Council ensured that there would be no reprieve for Mary. The execution was carried out at Fotheringay a week later without Elizabeth being informed in advance. She was buried initially in Peterborough cathedral, being moved later to Westminster Abbey when her son became James I of England. On receiving the news of Mary's execution the streets of Scotland, France and Spain resounded to cries of outrage and vows of revenge, but it was mainly shock speaking, not considered policy.

    • Word count: 1115
  20. How far do you agree with the view that Elizabeth remained single because her councillors could not agree on a suitable husband for her?

    There we certainly no shortage of suitors for the young queen. There were many young nobles, some English, some foreign, who were more than keen to woe England's premiere, the most notable being Lord Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. The tale of the childhood romance between Dudley and Elizabeth was the stuff of gossip at court and it seemed that much of her youthful life, she had been passionately in love with Dudley. He was clearly her favourite and received regular audiences, lands and titles.

    • Word count: 1749
  21. Which was the greater threat to Elizabeth's Church, Puritans or Catholics?

    One of the main features of the Puritans is that they sought change to 'improve' Elizabeth's settlement; they mostly did not want a complete overhaul and oust it altogether generally speaking, and what seemed to get the most opposition were areas of Catholic origin such as vestments and the cross on the head at baptism. Whatever level of Puritanism you look at, Elizabeth would no doubt have been aware of them all, because they all have in common the dissatisfactions of a protestant but their individual reasons varied.

    • Word count: 1949
  22. How far, and why, did traditional Catholicism decline during the reign of Elizabeth?

    It is perhaps easier to agree with Bossy as during the 1560s many Catholics reluctantly accepted the new church, often because of a lack of strong leadership from the papacy. Pope Pius IV hoped to persuade Elizabeth to join the catholic fold and Philip II feared that if the queen was overthrown Mary Queen of Scots would succeed thus driving England into the arms of France. Also the penalties issued to Catholics under the terms of the 1559 settlement were deliberately made light in order to steer them away from attempted opposition.

    • Word count: 1653
  23. What factors allowed Elizabeth to avoid war with Spain for so long?

    England could not survive as being enemy to both France and Spain the two leading Catholic powers. Therefore Elizabeth had to aid the Netherlands without openly going to war with Spain. For example she employed German mercenaries led by John Casimir. This desperate attempt to stop Spain gaining full control over the Netherlands did not work but it is an example of how Elizabeth was prepared to stop Spain gaining a base to launch a serious invasion on England. Circumstances also played into English hands that allowed Spain to not got to war with England. For example Spain's bankruptcy meant that the Spanish army in the Netherlands were not being paid and eventually mutilated which gave the upper hand to the Dutch, who forced the Spanish army out for a short period.

    • Word count: 1198
  24. EI-D-'Puritan attempts to change the Church settlement of 1558-59 were utterly unsuccessful during the following three decades.' How far do you agree with this judgement?

    This is very typical of Puritan efforts to pass puritan ideas through parliament. They had neither the significant numbers nor powerful positions in parliament to make significant legislation be passed. Most importantly Elizabeth had the power to stop any legislation that she did not like or thought unsuitable. The Puritan attempts to pass legislation to change the Church settlement were unsuccessful mainly because of Elizabeth's powers to stop bills that did not fit in with her view of the religious settlement. This meant that she could, with in given boundaries, pick and choose what settlement she wanted.

    • Word count: 1118
  25. Why was Mary Queen of Scots a threat to Elizabeth I and what problems did Elizabeth face in dealing with her?

    England and many powerful European countries like France and Spain who for many years plotted to depose and kill Elizabeth in order to put Mary on her throne. Mary had been brought up in France, as her mother, Mary of Guise, was French. She was married to the dauphin of France and when he died in 1561 she returned to Scotland where she took her rightful place on the Scottish throne after the death of her mother who had been acting as regent.

    • Word count: 1126

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent can Wolsey be considered the master rather than the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII

    "In order to answer the question of whether Wolsey was the master or the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII, this essay has shown that although Wolsey demonstrated great skill in administration and was an exceptionally hard worker, Henry VIII was still in overall charge. Wolsey could be seen to be a sycophant, courting favour with the King in order to further his own wealth and career. During the early years of Henry's reign, it is possible that Wolsey could be seen as the master, purely because the youthful Henry was caught up in more amusing affairs. However, Henry always devised policy but left Wolsey to carry it out. Henry recognised Wolsey's abilities and utilised them, but whilst Henry could easily remove Wolsey, Wolsey as a servant of the King was not able to remove Henry. In conclusion, the evidence suggests that Henry VIII and Wolsey formed an effective partnership, but Wolsey was always Henry's servant."

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