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- Marked by Teachers essays 3
Men were seen to have a predominance of hot, dry humours whilst women were cold and wet. Men and women were seen as essentially the same, the female reproductive organs being perceived as an inverted version of the male which, due to their cold temperament, remained inside the body whilst the males descended. "Men and women, according to this line of thinking, were not different; rather the female body was an inferior or imperfect version of the male."2 The balance of humours was also said to cause men and women's differing natures.
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Assess the view that the Dutch rebels challenged Philip IIs rule primarily in defense of their liberties. Throughout Philips reign there were three major revolts in the Netherlands, in 1568, 1572 and 1576. These represented the interests of various
However throughout Philip's reign 'liberty was [broadly speaking] the central issue1', combining the diversity present in all three revolts. The challenge from the regional governments was in defence of the Grandees liberty; once able to make their own decisions regarding the governing of their country, Spanish rule deprived them of this freedom. As a result 'a sort of united Netherlands was thus created'2 as the provinces joined together in their mutual contempt. However, the challenge was not just on account of the deprivation of their liberties, but as a reaction to the turmoil the Spaniards were causing by exploiting their power.
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Did the acquisition of Portugal in 1580 represent a greater success for Philip II than the victory at Lepanto in 1571?
and El Greco's 'Allegory of the Holy League' 5 (1578). Both paintings suggest that through the victory at Lepanto Philip successfully defended Christendom from the Turkish threat. But the value of these paintings in understanding the scale of the success is diminished, because both were commissioned by Philip himself, meaning the artists were likely to have inflated the significance of the victory. In fact, contrary to Elliott's view that the victory reduced the Turkish threat, there is evidence that Lepanto had little effect on the Turkish assault on the Mediterranean.
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How did the perception of Spain as the centre of a mighty European empire change to a lame state in the early-modern period?
Their ruling styles were often drastically different from the predecessor. Ferdinand and Isabella, the uniting force of Spain were famous for their dedication to their country, and their determination to unite it in all aspects, most particularly that of religion, forcibly converting Jews and Muslims to their own Catholic religion. Charles V took a very casual attitude towards Spain, unsurprising, considering the size of his empire, which was divided between his brother and his son upon his abdication in 1556.
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From 1531 to 1598 there was no fewer than eleven Acts of Parliament passed in relation to the poor. The purpose of this essay is to examine these laws and explain why some are considered to be controversial, as well as looking at the implications and reasoning behind the Statutes. Most of which sought the relief of the impotent or 'deserving poor' (people unable to find work because of illness, old age etc.) and the harsh punishment of the 'undeserving poor', such as vagrants (who most often were unemployed men or women unable to find work and migrating in order to do so)
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Jasmine's key worker has noticed bruising on Jasmine's legs and bottom. This could have been caused by her mobility difficulties. Despite Jasmine having cerebral palsy her injuries seem to be on the wrong part of the body
Jasmine's key worker has also noticed that Jasmine's mum, Barbara, 'has not looked herself lately', has been late picking up the children, not dressed smartly and looks stressed. Edwards states (2002, p.15) "Adults respond to stress in different ways; and how they respond can have an effect on their capacity to offer safe care to their children." Jasmine's mum could be under stress for a number of reasons. Her husband works full time, she has three children under the age of six, one with a disability who could demand a lot of attention, Beckett (2005,p.89)
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After the relative political calm of Elizabeth I's reign, the years that ensued were a constant power struggle between the king and his subjects. Neither was trying to rid the other of power entirely, but simply establish each other's limits. During the reign of James I, Edward Coke asserted that Law was not the instrument, but the boundary of royal prerogative. This is a political stance until it is realised that as Henry VIII had argued, James argued that as king he was divinely ordained, and thus answerable only to God.
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The battle of Kinsale was one of the main factors that eventually caused 'the downfall of the last of the Gaelic Lordships and the end of the old Irish world.'
Both O'Neill and O'Donnell had their own personal motives against the English. O'Neill had previously allied himself with the O'Donnell family using powerful marriage connections making this one of the most powerful alliances in Ireland. O'Neill was familiar with English customs as he had grown up following them. He received an English education and was familiar with the English style of battle and army. Despite the fact that he was Catholic he was loyal to the Queen, joining England in battle against Irish rebels many times.
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Indeed were it not for the characteristics of Cortes the 1519 voyage may never have been launched at all. Rather than for political or religious reasons, Spanish exploration during this period was used primarily as a means to economic expansion. The wealthy Governor Velasquez sponsored the 1519 voyage ostensibly for exploration but effectively to seek the almost mythical wealth of the Aztec civilisation. Although Velasquez had initially placed Cortes in charge of the expedition, rumours concerning his "trustworthiness, ambitions and political manoeuvrings"2 persuaded him to review his leadership. Upon learning of his imminent downfall, the arrogant Cortes set sail early, determined to pick up supplies and troops in Trinidad and carry on regardless.
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Elizabeth was also uncertain what kind of Protestantism she would adopt, as there were many different types that she could chose from. A.F. Pollard stated that Elizabeth was "indifferent to religion", although this claim was criticised by Sir John Neale, who took the view that Elizabeth wanted to go back to the religion of her father's day. In 1559, she told Parliament "We hope to rule... in like wise as the King my father held you in". Elizabeth was also, however, aware that her religious beliefs differed from other rulers and the idea of a coalition of Catholic forces, Spain and France, against England was a worry throughout her reign.
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France again lessened its threat to Elizabethan England when, in 1562 the first civil war of religion was started. This lessened the threat from France to England as the main French army controlling family, the Guise were heavily involved in the first civil war of religion. They had infact started the war by slaughtering French Huguenots for worshipping publicly. This was a misguided step as the Huguenots were a fast growing, self-arming militant group who by 1560, had become a state within a state. France was yet again made even less of a threat for England when, in 1572 the two countries signed the treaty of Blois.
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Success in these aims varied. Rhode Island welcomed people of every shade of religious belief but Catholics and Quakers were stilled under pressure to conform to the Church of England. The Huguenots in the French colonies were expelled in New France because of the growing belief in absolutism by the French monarchy. In the South Americas, faced with the prospect of the Inquisition, Jews fled to North America and lived successful lives. Civil liberties were too not achieved by all Europeans.
- Word count: 2829