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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why did witch hunting become so intensive in late sixteenth century England?

    3 star(s)

    The Dominican monk who wrote "Malleus Maleficium"4 in 1486 derived femina from "Fe" and "Minus" because according to them women were "deceitful" and "imperfect" (made from the "bent" rib of Adam), and the Dominican monks said women were "ever weaker to hold and preserve the faith" than men were. The contemporary Eliphas L�vi, who had been a celibate priest but had left the priesthood, said women were better at sorcery because "they are more easily transported by excess of passion."

    • Word count: 3025
  2. Why was it so difficult to decide between true and false visions and apparitions in early modern Europe?

    To append to perplexity, there were scientific claims by natural magicians of visual or sensual revelations being nothing but a trick of the eye. This essay aims to suggests that leading up to the Early modern period in Europe visions and apparitions were already topic for debate yet the reformation added even more reasons to confuse the long going issue religion, philosophy and science each held its part in making the matter of deciding between true or false visions or apparitions so difficult.

    • Word count: 3185
  3. How religious was the tenth-century reform?

    True Benedictine monasticism, asserts Blair, seems to have been almost dead in tenth-century England. The Vikings had destroyed several great and countless small minsters, while those which survived had tended towards a more secular lifestyle. Many minster priests were married with children and lived in separate houses with their families. Alfred had the century before deplored the state of learning in the Church but had failed in his attempt to effect a revival. This state of affairs was in marked contrast with the newly reformed continental houses such as Cluny and Fleury which adhered firmly to St.

    • Word count: 3391
  4. 'The divisions within Northern Ireland society have as much to do with class as religion or nationality' Discuss.

    Northern Ireland had the second highest church attendance in Western Europe after the Republic of Ireland, with 95% of Catholics and 45% of Protestants attending church on a weekly basis in 1969 and there can be no denying the fact that the divisions within Northern Irish society have been given religious labels - on a superficial level at least it is a battle between Catholics and Protestants. If this is so, then it is not unreasonable question to ask just which of the two is principally at fault.

    • Word count: 3383
  5. How far was the church in need of reform during your chosen period of study?

    He was a biblical scholar and an outstanding student of Greek and Latin. He placed a great emphasis on the administrative importance of the Church and made little attack on the theology. He felt that Church was in dire need for a spiritual leader yet he did not criticise the contemporary Papacy, which conveyed that he favoured reform rather than revolution. He disliked the Monastic system of the Church whereby men completely abandoned their lives in the ordinary world to devote themselves to a life of prayer and mediation in monasteries. He also showed a dislike for indulgences as a truly repentant Christian had already gained remission for his/hers sins so therefore should not have to pay money to the church.

    • Word count: 5210
  6. Assess the motives and impact of Elizabeth's intervention in Scotland between 1559-1560.

    This culminated in a fear that they were making Scotland into a French colony and "have entered upon the invasion of England by means of Scotland"3, it being the "the easiest road"4,"pressing with all possible means Mary's claims to the English Crown"5. France itself was putting a "band of soldiers already there planted"6 as well as "warlike munitions"7. So therefore intervention was "necessary for the defence of the realm to arm some convenient force"8. However there were voices of opposition in the cabinet from people like Arundel who claimed that intervention in Scotland would be seen as provocative.

    • Word count: 3648
  7. How did the reign of Elizabeth transform the Tudor state?

    She wanted to resolve the extreme hostilities between Catholics and Protestants which her sister had created. Both Elizabeth and Cecil 'held religion to be the matter of conscience'. For this the queen felt that religion had to be settled within the country by getting dissolving Pope and Spanish dominance. She introduced the 'Act of Supremacy', making her the governor of the Church instead of supreme head, reducing the Pope's influence. Many were uncomfortable with this because they did not like a woman being in charge of the state or the Church. The Queen restored the Edwardian Prayer Book of 1549 and 1552, which was portrayed to be capable of 'either a Catholic or Protestant interpretation.

    • Word count: 3394

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent can Wolsey be considered the master rather than the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII

    "In order to answer the question of whether Wolsey was the master or the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII, this essay has shown that although Wolsey demonstrated great skill in administration and was an exceptionally hard worker, Henry VIII was still in overall charge. Wolsey could be seen to be a sycophant, courting favour with the King in order to further his own wealth and career. During the early years of Henry's reign, it is possible that Wolsey could be seen as the master, purely because the youthful Henry was caught up in more amusing affairs. However, Henry always devised policy but left Wolsey to carry it out. Henry recognised Wolsey's abilities and utilised them, but whilst Henry could easily remove Wolsey, Wolsey as a servant of the King was not able to remove Henry. In conclusion, the evidence suggests that Henry VIII and Wolsey formed an effective partnership, but Wolsey was always Henry's servant."

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